Farmers market roseburg oregon

Bike racks in the city/ Bike theft

2023.05.31 04:39 Appropriate-Major-34 Bike racks in the city/ Bike theft

Hello Hello! I'm all in on trying to live my bike heavy life when i move to St Louis. I've done some digging in this Reddit but there doesn't seem to be much stuff on bike theft. What's the vibe in 2023? I'm also curious how easy it is to find bike racks/lock your bike in popular places like farmer's markets and grocery stores.
submitted by Appropriate-Major-34 to StLouis [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 04:02 newlangren Farmers in Henan province left most wheat unharvested due to lack of machine support, sprouted wheat worth very little to sell in the market

submitted by newlangren to China [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 03:52 schmoopser [Unknown > English] what does this card say?

[Unknown > English] what does this card say?
I got it from a farmer’s market booth in Portland, OR, in the early 1980s. The artist said it was my name and the meaning of it in her language.
submitted by schmoopser to translator [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 03:26 LandscapeIcy7375 I need suggestions for our parents 50th anniversary trip

My parents (75 & 68) are celebrating their 50th anniversary this summer, and geographically Pittsburgh was the best place for us (3 children + grandchildren) to meet. We don’t have any attachment to Pittsburgh itself, so we’re viewing this as a fun family adventure. We’re looking for suggestions of all kinds - food, crafts, music, farmers markets…it really doesn’t matter, as long as we can go as a family. We’re coming the week after July 4th, so hit me with your best suggestions!
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2023.05.31 03:17 themannis72 Week 22: Street Food - BLT Picnic with Watermelon Mint Salad [meta: gluten free]

Week 22: Street Food - BLT Picnic with Watermelon Mint Salad [meta: gluten free]
The weather in my city is absolutely beautiful so my partner and I had a picnic on the waterfront. We used gluten free homemade bread and farmer’s market tomatoes, lettuce, and bacon (purchased on a street!). Our picnic was a great way to start off the summer
submitted by themannis72 to 52weeksofcooking [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:30 Silent_Researcher_42 “Normal” relationship?

This is the only relationship I’ve really been in and it just isn’t normal. My husband is so stressed with work and how the world is out to get him. He has had trauma. Physical, sexual, emotional. He has also done the work and is on medications. It is better than it’s been but it can just be exhausting and disappointing. I told him we are pregnant with our second child and he was happy for a bit and then stressed and depressed again by work. It’s ALWAYS something. Going out to eat, being with friends, travel, being with family, going to the farmers market. It’s all a chore to him. “I’m exhausted.” And he is. But all he does is work. And then he’s mad he doesn’t have a life, but when I try to do things he complains and makes it stressful. I say he doesn’t have to come but then he says he wants to be with us. Please advise. I think of how much easier it would be with someone who is happy. Happy in life and looks forward to the days and being with me. Everything is a burden to him.
submitted by Silent_Researcher_42 to BPDlovedones [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:22 jannali08 Drug test advice

I need to take a drug test in 5 days and I’ve been a heavy cannabis user for years. Recently I’ve been eating a pretty high fat diet cause I found some fire pork shoulder at the farmers market and I’ve been frying everything in that Smokey fat. I know this will retain thc in my body for longer tho. The test is a 10 strip dip urinalysis at a laboratory. My only game plan as of now is to dilute the hell out of it. ideally, I’d like to not have to stop smoking but I’ll do it if necessary. It’s for a good job. If I dilute heavily for 5 days is there a chance I’ll piss clean? I took a week long t break a week ago but have smoked a good dozen or more times since then.
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2023.05.31 02:20 yungfalafel May the siren be with you all

May the siren be with you all submitted by yungfalafel to starbucks [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:14 svet_sedov China SVET Review and Analysis

The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is the world’s emerging superpower. However, it is also a country facing a growing number of economical, social, and ecological issues.
China’s GDP exceeds $11 trillion dollars, making it the second largest in the world after the US. Despite this, its rate of economic growth has sharply dropped to 6% in 2016 from 9% in 2013. The PRC has a highly centralized and government-managed economy, along with strictly regulated political life. Notwithstanding, some Chinese provinces are allowed to pursue independent economic policies.
China officially has a multi-party political system. However, in practice, there is only one party that holds significant power — the Communist Party of China (CPC), which was founded on July 1, 1921. The CPC’s ideology is based on the Marxist-Leninist doctrine introduced by Karl Marx (a Prussian economist) and Friedrich Engels (a German philosopher and businessman) in the 1880s. This doctrine was later supplemented by the theory of Socialism by Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin (a Russian politician and revolutionary).
The doctrine postulates that society is composed of two major economic classes — the working people (exploited) and the bourgeoisie (exploiters). According to this theory, a global economic crisis will lead to a revolution, with the working class taking control of the world and the bourgeoisie being eliminated. Ultimately, capitalism will cease to exist, and communism (where goods are freely available and nobody works) will prevail. Mao Zedong, the founder of the CPC, adapted this theory to the Chinese context by including Chinese farmers in the definition of the working class.
The PRC government plays a central role in both the political and economic aspects of China. The CPC governs China through an administrative pyramid, with the Central Committee (Politburo) and the National Congress at the top.
The National Congress is comprised of over 2000 delegates who are elected mainly from local CPC committee members. This assembly convenes for a two-week session in Beijing once a year. The 22 Chinese provinces are managed by regional governors appointed by the Central Committee, and their primary objective is to fulfill the CPC’s goal of achieving GDP growth. The government operates based on five-year plans.
The list of other political parties in China includes:
Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang (53,000 members, representing Taiwan residents in China); China Democratic League (130,000 members, mainly composed of the middle class); China Democratic National Construction Association (69,000 members, consisting of entrepreneurs); China Association for Promoting Democracy (64,000 members, primarily intellectuals); Chinese Peasants’ and Workers’ Democratic Party (65,000 members, representing government employees); Zhigongdang of China (15,000 members, representing overseas Chinese); Jiusan Society (68,000 members, comprising individual professionals); Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (1,600 members, including prominent Chinese celebrities). All of these parties are aligned with and support the CPC in its major initiatives and policies. Opposition to the CPC is not tolerated.
Economic Review
Administratively China consists of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities directly under the central government, and 2 special administrative regions.
China’s main economic regions:
Eastern Coastal Region: This region includes provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, as well as Shanghai. It has been a major driver of China’s economic growth due to its proximity to international trade routes and its well-developed infrastructure. The Eastern Coastal Region contributes approximately 45–50% to China’s GDP. Western Region: The Western Region comprises provinces such as Sichuan, Chongqing, and Yunnan, as well as the Tibet Autonomous Region. This region is known for its rich natural resources, including minerals, energy, and agricultural products. The Western Region contributes around 15–20% to China’s GDP. Central Region: The Central Region includes provinces such as Henan, Hubei, and Hunan. It is characterized by a mix of industries, including manufacturing, agriculture, and services. The Central Region contributes roughly 15–20% to China’s GDP. Northeastern Region: The Northeastern Region consists of provinces like Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang. Historically, this region was a vital industrial base for heavy machinery, mining, and manufacturing. However, it has faced economic challenges in recent years. The Northeastern Region contributes approximately 7–10% to China’s GDP. Pearl River Delta: The Pearl River Delta is a highly urbanized and economically dynamic region located in Guangdong Province. It encompasses cities like Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Dongguan. Known as a manufacturing and export hub, it has played a pivotal role in China’s economic growth. The Pearl River Delta contributes around 10–15% to China’s GDP. Yangtze River Delta: The Yangtze River Delta region covers Shanghai and the surrounding provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. It is one of the most economically developed and prosperous regions in China. With a strong focus on finance, manufacturing, and services, the Yangtze River Delta contributes approximately 20–25% to China’s GDP. China’s Latest Economic Updates
Stock Market
The Shanghai Composite rose from 2892 in November 2022 to 3284 (as of May 17, 2023).
Yuan rose from 6.7 in Jan 2023 to 7.0 as of May 17, 2023
In March 2023, China’s surveyed urban unemployment rate decreased to 5.3%, the lowest in seven months, from February’s 5.6%. Those aged 25–59 saw their jobless rate drop to 4.3% from 4.8% in February, while those aged 16–24 increased to 19.6% from 18.1%. The unemployment rate in 31 large cities and towns also declined to 5.5% from 5.7%.
Employees’ average weekly working hours across China increased to 48.7 in March from 47.9 in February. In the first quarter of 2023, the unemployment rate slightly declined to 5.5% from 5.6% in Q4 2022. The government has set a target of around 5.5% for the year, with the creation of approximately 12 million new urban jobs. China has also set a 2023 GDP growth target of about 5%.
China’s economy grew by 2.2% (SA) in Q1–2023, the third consecutive quarter of expansion following the removal of travel restrictions in Dec-2022 and a three-year crackdown on tech firms and property. However, the uneven recovery showed that while consumption, services, and infrastructure spending picked up, slowing inflation and rising bank savings led to doubts about demand.
In Mar-2023, the central bank cut lenders’ reserve requirements for the first time in 2023 and Beijing promised more fiscal stimulus.
In April of 2023, China’s inflation rate declined to 0.1% from the previous month’s 0.7%, which was lower than anticipated. The decrease in prices for both food and non-food items was due to an unstable economic recovery after the enclosure policy was lifted. Food prices fell notably due to lower prices of pork and fresh vegetables, while non-food prices fell due to lower prices for transportation and housing. Inflation for health remained steady, while education costs increased.
Country’s exports rose unexpectedly by 14.8% YoY to a high of USD 315.59B in March 2023, rebounding sharply from a 6.8% drop in January-February combined and beating market consensus of a 7% fall. It was the first advance in shipments since September 2022 as Beijing boosts trade with developed countries and emerging economies. Steel products (53.2%) and refined products (35.1%) were the largest contributors. Exports to China’s largest partner, ASEAN, rose 35.43%, while those to the EU (3.38%) and Russia (136.43%) also increased. Conversely, exports fell to Japan (-4.8%), Taiwan (-27.6%), and the US (-7.68%), while they expanded to Australia (23.7%) and South Korea (11.3%).
SVET Analysis Space (A-):
Strategic location: China is located in the heart of Asia, which gives it a strategic location to engage in trade and diplomacy with neighboring countries. China also has access to the Pacific Ocean, which allows it to trade with countries in the Americas and Oceania. Natural resources: China has significant reserves of coal, iron ore, and other minerals. The country is also the world’s largest producer of rare earth elements, which are essential in the manufacturing of high-tech products. This resource base has fueled China’s economic growth over the past few decades. Agricultural productivity: China has a large and fertile agricultural base, which allows it to produce significant amounts of food. The country is the world’s largest producer of rice and wheat, and it has made significant advances in crop yields through the use of technology and modern farming practices. Disadvantages:
Natural disasters: China is prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and typhoons, which can cause significant damage to infrastructure and disrupt the economy. Resource depletion: China’s rapid economic growth has led to the depletion of some of its natural resources, such as water and arable land. This depletion can lead to environmental degradation and food insecurity in the future. Energy dependence: Despite having significant reserves of coal, China is also heavily dependent on imported oil and gas to meet its energy needs. This dependence makes the country vulnerable to supply disruptions and price fluctuations on the global market. Voice (C):
Stability: The Chinese government prioritizes maintaining stability and order in the country, which has helped to ensure social cohesion and economic growth. Economic development: China’s political system has enabled it to pursue policies that have led to rapid economic growth and development over the past few decades. Nationalism: The Chinese government emphasizes the importance of national unity and pride, which has helped to foster a strong sense of identity among Chinese citizens. Strategic planning: The government’s focus on long-term planning has enabled China to achieve its ambitious economic and geopolitical goals. Minuses:
Lack of political freedom: The Chinese government tightly controls political expression and restricts freedom of speech, assembly, and association, which has led to criticism from human rights groups. State control: The government’s control over the economy and key industries can stifle innovation and limit the potential for private sector growth. Lack of transparency: The Chinese government is known for being opaque in its decision-making processes, which can lead to uncertainty for businesses and investors. Human rights violations: The government’s policies towards ethnic minorities, such as the Uighur population in Xinjiang, have been criticized by the international community for alleged human rights abuses. Ethos (B-):
Han Chinese: The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group in China, accounting for over 90% of the population. They enjoy the most favorable treatment from the government and have access to the best jobs, education, and healthcare. However, this has led to some resentment from minority groups who feel marginalized. Ethnic minorities: There are 55 recognized ethnic minority groups in China, including Tibetans, Uighurs, Mongolians, and others. They often face discrimination and limited opportunities for advancement. Some minority groups, such as the Uighurs in Xinjiang, have also been subject to government repression. Rural residents: China’s rural population is around 40% of the total population. They often have limited access to education, healthcare, and job opportunities compared to urban residents. However, the government has implemented policies to try to bridge this gap, such as investing in rural infrastructure and offering subsidies to farmers. Urban residents: China’s urban population is growing rapidly and has access to more job opportunities, education, and healthcare than rural residents. However, this has also led to increased competition for resources and rising income inequality. Time (B-):
Positive scenarios:
Continued economic growth: China’s economy has been growing rapidly over the past few decades, and it is likely to continue. This could result in increased prosperity and an improved standard of living for many Chinese citizens. Technological advancement: China has made significant strides in technology and innovation, and this trend is likely to continue. This could result in China becoming a global leader in technology, creating new industries and high-paying jobs. Improved infrastructure: China has been investing heavily in infrastructure, such as high-speed rail and new airports, which can improve transportation and connectivity and stimulate economic growth. Increased global influence: As China’s economy and political influence continue to grow, it could become a dominant player on the global stage, shaping international politics and economics. Negative scenarios:
Environmental degradation: China’s rapid economic growth has resulted in severe environmental problems, such as air and water pollution. If this trend continues, it could have severe consequences for public health and the environment. Social inequality: China’s economic growth has also created significant social inequalities, with a wealthy urban elite and a poorer rural population. This could result in social unrest and instability. Political repression: The Chinese government’s increasing control over the media and the internet, and its crackdowns on dissent, could result in greater political repression. Economic slowdown: China’s economic growth has already slowed in recent years, and if this trend continues, it could result in job losses and economic instability, which could have global consequences. Overall
The Chinese reforms were initiated by Deng Xiaoping (1978–1992) in the late 1970s. These reforms aimed to open up China to foreign investment, encourage private enterprise, and modernize various sectors of the economy. As part of these reforms, the number of directly controlled industries was drastically reduced. Additionally, the number of price-controlled goods decreased from approximately 300 to around 20.
With that said, the government still exercises strict regulatory oversight and establishes guidelines and policies that private businesses must adhere to. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) continue to play a significant role in the Chinese economy and frequently receive preferential treatment and support from the government.
Those policies were continued under Jiang Zemin (1993–2003), during which China was accepted into the World Trade Organization (WTO) on December 11, 2001, and also under Hu Jintao (2003–2013). However, when Xi Jinping (2013-present) assumed power, there was a gradual shift towards increased direct control over the economy and the establishment of a more centralized system. This change was accompanied by the active implementation of mass-surveillance technologies.
That happened synchronously with the end of the world’s latest 80-year-long generational cycle, which began in the 1940s and 1950s. This cycle was characterized by massive political decentralization, resulting in the emergence of several dozen new states between 1940 and 2000. After the 2007–2008 debts debacle, this cycle of economic expansion, driven by the exploitation of readily available resources, came to a close. However, it was artificially extended for the next 15 years through the easing of monetary policies pursued simultaneously by central banks worldwide.
That led to an unprecedented growth of private businesses worldwide. It was accompanied by increased prosperity and a rising level of education across all segments of the population. Small and medium-sized entrepreneurs, particularly in the high-tech industry, began to assume leading positions in the economic landscape. However, this economic progress was not accompanied by significant political reforms.
The old class of hereditary, mostly populist politicians, who often lacked education, managed to stay in power throughout that period, largely due to the outdated electoral system based on indirect political representation. However, when blockchain technologies were utilized to establish algorithmic consensus and enable effective direct governance, this new system faced resistance from entrenched political clans in all countries, resulting in its suppression.
China is currently at the forefront of this trend, with its political class focused on leveraging high-tech advancements to achieve both economic efficiency and comprehensive political control. However, there are two significant obstacles that China faces along this path.
Firstly, China is confronted with a shrinking population. In recent years, the country has undergone a substantial demographic shift characterized by an aging population and a decline in the working-age population. This is partially attributed to the one-child policy that was enforced from 1979 to 2016, resulting in a diminished labor force and a growing proportion of elderly individuals.
Secondly, there is a culmination of the resource-exploration and expansionist phase of global economic growth, accompanied by escalating political and military tensions worldwide. This situation is likely to result in a reduction of China’s import markets and an increased dependence on a less-competitive domestic market. Consequently, this could potentially lead to a scenario of stagflation, characterized by stagnant economic growth coupled with high inflationary pressures.
Faced with these fundamental challenges, it is highly probable that China will resort to aggressive and militaristic policies in an attempt to expand its territory directly or enforce its economic dominance in the Asian region through alternative means.
China is expected to continue on its trajectory towards increased global dominance through local conflicts and enhanced technological control over the economy and population over the next 15–20 years. However, this trend could be altered by a new wave of decentralization, which would require a significant deviation from current policies.
Such a shift may occur when not only the current generation of older politicians, but also the subsequent one (which is likely to further reinforce the existing trend), is replaced by “enlightened” technocrats who advocate for a return to decentralized approaches in both politics and economics.
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2023.05.31 01:41 VenomRogue413 How do I get into selling digital and traditional art and crafts online full time?

To put it simply, I can't stand working normal jobs. The idea of having to work for the rest of my life makes me not even want to live. But right now I have a really low key job where I am essentially getting paid to do nothing, so tons of time to work on my art. What I want to do for a living is sell art. I have been an artist since I was very young, but I have no formal training other than 1 or 2 college classes. I have taught myself most of what I know. I mostly draw, but I also paint and do crafts. I am working on improving my digital art skills as they are subpar at the moment. I'm still learning. But I had a few questions on how to get started with this like....
  1. Best websites to sell art?
  2. Best in-person places to sell art? I live in a tiny town in SW Virginia with hardly anything but farmer's markets.
  3. Best digital art programs? (I have Clip Studio but I don't know that it's the best)
  4. Where to find good and easy to understand tutorials, learn more about drawing, painting, crafts, digital art especially, that are cheap or free?
  5. What kinds of things sell best in the category of art, drawings, paintings, wall art, graphic design, printables, stickers, etc.?
  6. How to market myself and connect with other artists? I have no friends in real life, never felt the need for them, so how can I do this online? I have antisocial personality disorder and don't like friendships or connections outside of business connections and family.
  7. Best tools, hardware, software? I have an iPad with Apple pencil and keyboard, Clip Studio, MacBook, Windows desktop, Wacom tablet, sewing machine. Thinking about getting a Cricut--which is best to buy for a beginner?
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2023.05.31 01:21 Rich_Phase_1195 My girlfriend 26F broke up with me 22M

I love living in Minot, North Dakota and I recently discovered that that's where I want to settle down. She doesn't like the extreme cold, the fact that they don't have farmer's markets or any medspas for her beauty stuff and the difficulty of traveling to other states. Most times you need to take 2 flights and it's expensive. She was willing to move to any another city with those facilities but I like a small town in the middle of nowhere like that with extreme cold weather, that makes me happy and told her that I only want to live in Minot so she broke up with me after 4 years of being together. She calls me selfish. I don't know what to do. Prioritizing my happiness over her is a bad thing?
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2023.05.31 01:19 EasyNewzApp The natural gas outlook will pressure fertilizer prices.

Natural gas futures in New York have fallen by 75% since reaching the highest level in 15 years last August. The fall for European prices has been even more extreme, now over 90% off the highs. Some analysts suggest prices could go negative this year due to high inventories and weak demand from the industrial sector.
European manufacturing is not rebounding the way many had hoped. German’s revised first-quarter negative GDP technically places the country into a recession. With the summer approaching and renewable energy sources about to increase, this is a recipe for periods of very depressed prices. Global exporters are worried that buyers may look to cancel existing purchase agreements.
The positive for farmers is fertilizer prices in most categories have returned to historical averages and could fall throughout the summer. Biological fertilizers gained market share as prices of chemical fertilizers reached all-time highs a year ago.
Farmers will have more choices between price-competitive chemical and biological fertilizers, which should support profitability in the second half 2023. This could also keep South American production trending higher even as profitability in Brazil returns to more normal levels.
Source: Easy Newz App
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2023.05.31 01:16 The_gypsy_princess something fun something local ?

I’m new to the area and don’t know what to do around here ! What is there to do around Henderson area? Farmers markets, shops, a nice walk, hike,bars, restaurants, what is there to do here lol
submitted by The_gypsy_princess to vegaslocals [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 00:50 Boisthebest Is this honey good? If it's too much water content how do I bring it down. Bubbly foam at the top when I first opened it with wax/particles. Raw farmers market honey.

Is this honey good? If it's too much water content how do I bring it down. Bubbly foam at the top when I first opened it with wax/particles. Raw farmers market honey.
Potent herby smells and fluid
submitted by Boisthebest to honey [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 00:04 JoshAsdvgi The Dawes Act of 1887

The Dawes Act of 1887

The Dawes Act of 1887
(also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887),
Authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship.
The Dawes Act was amended in 1891, in 1898 by the Curtis Act, and again in 1906 by the Burke Act.
The Act was named for its creator, Senator Henry Laurens Dawes of Massachusetts.
The objectives of the Dawes Act were to abolish tribal and communal land ownership of the tribes into individual land ownership rights in order to transfer lands under Indian control to white settlers and stimulate assimilation of them into mainstream American society, and thereby lift individual Native Americans out of poverty.
Individual household ownership of land and subsistence farming on the European-American model was seen as an essential step.
The act provided that the government would classify as "excess" those Indian reservation lands remaining after allotments, and sell those lands on the open market, allowing purchase and settlement by non-Native Americans.
The Dawes Commission, set up under an Indian Office appropriation bill in 1893, was created to try to persuade the Five Civilized Tribes to agree to allotment plans.
(They had been excluded from the Dawes Act by their treaties.)
This commission registered the members of the Five Civilized Tribes on what became known as the Dawes Rolls.
The Curtis Act of 1898 amended the Dawes Act to extend its provisions to the Five Civilized Tribes; it required abolition of their governments, allotment of communal lands to people registered as tribal members, and sale of lands declared surplus, as well as dissolving tribal courts.
This completed the extinguishment of tribal land titles in Indian Territory, preparing it to be admitted to the Union as the state of Oklahoma.
During the ensuing decades, the Five Civilized Tribes sold off 90 million acres of former communal lands to non-Natives.
In addition, many individuals, unfamiliar with land ownership, became the target of speculators and criminals, were stuck with allotments that were too small for profitable farming, and lost their household lands.
Tribe members also suffered from the breakdown of the social structure of the tribes.
During the Great Depression, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration supported passage on June 18, 1934 of the US Indian Reorganization Act
(also known as the Wheeler-Howard Law).
It ended land allotment and created a "New Deal" for Indians, renewing their rights to reorganize and form their self-governments.
The new policy intended to concentrate Native Americans in areas away from encroaching settlers, but it caused considerable suffering and many deaths. During the nineteenth century, Native American tribes resisted the imposition of the reservation system and engaged with the United States Army in what were called the Indian Wars in the West for decades. Finally defeated by the US military force and continuing waves of encroaching settlers, the tribes negotiated agreements to resettle on reservations.[6] Native Americans ended up with a total of over 155 million acres (630,000 km2) of land, ranging from arid deserts to prime agricultural land.[7]

The Reservation system, though forced upon Native Americans, was a system that allotted each tribe a claim to their new lands, protection over their territories, and the right to govern themselves. With the Senate supposedly being able to intervene only through the negotiation of treaties, they adjusted their ways of life and tried to continue their traditions.[8] The traditional tribal organization, a defining characteristic of Native Americans as a social unit, became apparent to the non-native communities of the United States and created a mixed stir of emotions. The tribe was viewed as a highly cohesive group, led by a hereditary, chosen chief, who exercised power and influence among the members of the tribe by aging traditions.[9] The tribes were seen as strong, tight-knit societies led by powerful men who were opposed to any change that weakened their positions. Many white Americans feared them and sought reformation. The Indians' failure to adopt the "Euroamerican" lifestyle, which was the social norm in the United States at the time, was seen as both unacceptable and uncivilized.

By the end of the 1880s, a general consensus seem to have been reached among many US stakeholders that the assimilation of Native Americans into American culture was top priority; it was the time for them to leave behind their tribal landholding, reservations, traditions and ultimately their Indian identities.[10]

On February 8, 1887, the Dawes Allotment Act was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland.

Responsible for enacting the division of the tribal reservations into plots of land for individual households, the Dawes Act was created by reformers to achieve six goals:

breaking up of tribes as a social unit,
encouraging individual initiatives,
furthering the progress of native farmers,
reducing the cost of native administration,
securing parts of the reservations as Indian land, and
opening the remainder of the land to white settlers for profit.[11]
The Act facilitated assimilation; they would become more "Euro-Americanized" as the government allotted the reservations. Native Americans held specific ideologies pertaining to tribal land, to them the land and earth were things to be valued and cared for, it represented things that produced and sustained life, it embodied their existence and identity, and created an environment of belonging.[12] In opposition to their white counterparts, they did not see it from an economic standpoint.

But, many natives began to believe they had to adapt to the majority culture in order to survive. They would have to embrace these beliefs and surrender to the forces of progress. They were to adopt the values of the dominant society and see land as real estate to be bought and developed; they learned how to use their land effectively in order to become prosperous farmers.[13] As they were inducted as citizens of the country, they would shed their uncivilized discourses and ideologies, and exchange them for ones that allowed them to become industrious self-supporting citizens, and finally rid themselves of their "need" for government supervision.[14]

The important provisions of the Dawes Act[2] were:

A head of family would receive a grant of 160 acres (65 ha), a single person or orphan over 18 years of age would receive a grant of 80 acres (32 ha), and persons under the age of 18 would receive 40 acres (16 ha) each;
the allotments would be held in trust by the U.S. Government for 25 years;
Eligible Indians had four years to select their land; afterward the selection would be made for them by the Secretary of the Interior.[15]
Every member of the bands or tribes receiving a land allotment is subject to laws of the state or territory in which they reside. Every Indian who receives a land allotment "and has adopted the habits of civilized life" (lived separate and apart from the tribe) is bestowed with United States citizenship "without in any manner impairing or otherwise affecting the right of any such Indian to tribal or other property".[16]

The Secretary of Interior could issue rules to assure equal distribution of water for irrigation among the tribes, and provided that "no other appropriation or grant of water by any riparian proprietor shall be authorized or permitted to the damage of any other riparian proprietor."[17]

The Dawes Act did not apply to the territory of the:[18]

Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Miami, and Peoria in Indian Territory
Osage, Sac, and Fox, in the Oklahoma Territory
any of the reservations of the Seneca Nation of New York, or
a strip of territory in the State of Nebraska adjoining the Sioux Nation
Provisions were later extended to the Wea, Peoria, Kaskaskia, Piankeshaw, and Western Miami tribes by act of 1889.[19] Allotment of the lands of these tribes was mandated by the Act of 1891, which amplified the provisions of the Dawes Act.[20]

Dawes Act 1891 Amendments
In 1891 the Dawes Act was amended:[21]

Allowed for pro-rata distribution when the reservation did not have enough land for each individual to receive allotments in original quantities, and provided that when land is only suitable for grazing purposes, such land be allotted in double quantities[22]
Established criteria for inheritance[23]
Does not apply to Cherokee Outlet[24]
Provisions of the Curtis Act
The Curtis Act of 1898 extended the provisions of the Dawes Act to the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory. It did away with their self-government, including tribal courts. In addition to providing for allotment of lands to tribal members, it authorized the Dawes Commission to make determination of members when registering tribal members.

Provisions of the Burke Act
The Burke Act of 1906[25] amended the sections of the Dawes Act dealing with US Citizenship (Section 6) and the mechanism for issuing allotments. The Secretary of Interior could force the Indian Allottee to accept title for land. US Citizenship was granted unconditionally upon receipt of land allotment (the individual did not need to move off the reservation to receive citizenship). Land allotted to Indians was taken out of Trust and subject to taxation. The Burke Act did not apply to any Indians in Indian Territory.

In 1922, the General Accounting Office (GAO) conducted an audit of 12 reservations to determine the severity of fractionation on those reservations. The GAO found that on the 12 reservations for which it compiled data, there were approximately 80,000 discrete owners but, because of fractionation, there were over a million ownership records associated with those owners. The GAO also found that if the land were physically divided by the fractional interests, many of these interests would represent less than one square foot of ground. In early 2002, the Department of the Interior attempted to replicate the audit methodology used by the GAO and to update the GAO report data to assess the continued growth of fractionation; it found that it increased by more than 40% between 1992 and 2002.

As an example of continuing fractionation, consider a real tract identified in 1987 in Hodel v. Irving, 481 U.S. 704 (1987):

Tract 1305 is 40 acres (160,000 m2) and produces $1,080 in income annually. It is valued at $8,000. It has 439 owners, one-third of whom receive less than $.05 in annual rent and two-thirds of whom receive less than $1. The largest interest holder receives $82.85 annually. The common denominator used to compute fractional interests in the property is 3,394,923,840,000. The smallest heir receives $.01 every 177 years. If the tract were sold (assuming the 439 owners could agree) for its estimated $8,000 value, he would be entitled to $.000418. The administrative costs of handling this tract are estimated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs at $17,560 annually.

Today, this tract produces $2,000 in income annually and is valued at $22,000. It now has 505 owners but the common denominator used to compute fractional interests has grown to 220,670,049,600,000. If the tract were sold (assuming the 505 owners could agree) for its estimated $22,000 value, the smallest heir would now be entitled to $.00001824. The administrative costs of handling this tract in 2003 are estimated by the BIA at $42,800.

Fractionation has become significantly worse. As noted above, in some cases the land is so highly fractionated that it can never be made productive. With such small ownership interests, it is nearly impossible to obtain the level of consent necessary to lease the land. In addition, to manage highly fractionated parcels of land, the government spends more money probating estates, maintaining title records, leasing the land, and attempting to manage and distribute tiny amounts of income to individual owners than is received in income from the land. In many cases, the costs associated with managing these lands can be significantly more than the value of the underlying asset.
submitted by JoshAsdvgi to Native_Stories [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 00:04 PepeiGomyez Farmers Market/Pop ups kzoo

I will be in the Kalamazoo area this weekend and I am wondering if there are any pop up shops/events/ or markets where I can purchase from local growers and pressers? Thanks
submitted by PepeiGomyez to Michigents [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 23:53 Redfox2014 Things to do (May 30th - June 6th)

The SD Reader's "Picks of the week"
Also: "The SD Readers list of "Fun Things to Do"
As well as, the "Best of List"
If you're visiting on certain dates You can plug in your dates at the San Diego Reader and see what pops for events that might be of interest to your family.
Another "cheap or free" page from the local news station
For those that are thinking of going down to Tijuana Mexico
A list of 69 things to do in Tijuana
Thank You, u/Matingas for this link <_ Brother Moderator of Tijuana :)
Of course, there's the regular weekly stuff:
Saturday's u/ thedaymayne organizes a semi-regularly about a flag football game Saturday at 11a at Jefferson Elementary (turf field). There's a solid core of 6-8 people and were always looking for new people to join. No ones D-1 athletes and we don't allow blocking to keep it clean and injury free. PM for more info.
u/lightwolv Suggests: Heads up for soccer players. We run a free meet-up every Tuesday and Thursday from 5 - 7. It's outdoor with big goals, cones and co-ed. If you wanna get outside and active, sign up. All skil All skill levels welcome, for those who played in college and stuff, it's competitive and it's a good work out.
Every Sunday at 2pm-3pm, free organ concert at Spreckles Organ Pavilion in Balboa Park.
Every Sunday Farmers Market at the Hillcrest DMV
Free yoga classes All around San Diego (Coastal) :
A good list of classes all over the city, Solana Beach
Sunset Cliffs, USS Midway Museum
Yoga on the Bay Every Saturday 10:30 am
There's a Sunday live video streaming of the classes in PB 10-11:30 am
u/YmcaAdultSports suggests: If you are interested in joining an Adult Sports League, come check out what the Dan McKinney Family YMCA has to offer (La Jolla)
IF there's something that you think is important or needs to have tickets purchased in advance... please post in the comments. IF there's a link that's needed, please try to not make it part of some text but the full URL string So I can just copy and paste it. (It'll make things easier) I'll try to retain these in the following week until the date of the event.
Please don't post events that are several months in advance. Try to limit it to 30 days or so - unless there's a real need for advance notice well in advance for ticket purchases.
Stuff from Last Weeks post: N/A
Monthly Yoga class at the South Embarcadero Rady Shell
The MsMargo activity section (welcome back!)
Free Guitar-Based Classic Rock Jam
Mondays, 6:50 pm-9:00 pm Our Savior's Lutheran Church 4011 Ohio Street San Diego, 92104 Age Limit: 18+ All levels welcome. Bring your own guitar, mandolin, flute, etc. or just sing along. Song chords and words are displayed via projector to a large screen. No practice required.
Gilbert Castellanos Presents: Young Lions And The Wednesday Jam Session - FREE!
Panama 66 restaurant, Balboa Park
"Every Wednesday Panama 66 at The San Diego Museum of Art comes to life with the sounds of jazz. San Diego jazz hero Gilbert Castellanos showcases young music prodigies with The Young Lions Series (7:00–7:50 p.m.) followed by the Wednesday Jazz Jam (8:00–10:30 p.m.) that transforms the James S. Copley Auditorium into a swinging speak-easy. Order a craft cocktail or draft beer, take in the view of the Museum’s Sculpture Court and Garden, and enjoy an evening of music from San Diego’s finest jazz musicians.
Visit the Panama 66 Instagram page for updates on performances, closures, and schedule changes.
FREE event. Drinks and food available for purchase."
FREE Jazz at the The Conrad Prebys Performing Arts Center
Friday, June 2 · 4:30-5:30 PM - Gates open at 4 PM
Wu Tsai QRT.yrd, The Conrad Prebys Performing Arts Center, La Jolla
Besos Jazz Trio
"The Wu Tsai QRT.yrd Concert Series continues with Besos Jazz Trio as part of the First Friday La Jolla Art Walk.
Enjoy live swinging jazz and music from around the world with Besos Jazz Trio, featuring tap artist and percussionist Claudia Gomez, guitarist Beston Barnett, and bassist Evona Wascinski."
If there's something you think others will want to be know about happening the same week as the dates for this post OE in the near future (1-2 weeks out) please feel free to include it in the comments, Any future/reoccurring events will be added to the list in the next weekly TTD post.
submitted by Redfox2014 to sandiego [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 23:16 Sweetstefa123 split

hi, as im researching about my accomodation, bus tickets and touristic attractions, i came here to ask what else i can do in my 3 days stay to feel like a "local". i already decided to go to the farmers market, but what is more there? id also appreciate if you'd message me privately abt this, but please don't be creepy
hvala (i don't speak croatian, that's all i know)
submitted by Sweetstefa123 to Split [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 23:12 Spirit_Llama658 I hate this job

Sitting here crying because I had to return my foster to the shelter because I'm about to leave on a trip for a month and pet care is expensive. This is the only one of my foster dogs I've ever wanted to keep. He doesn't fit in my life. He chases cats, killed one of my chickens, and my little dog hates him. And he still barks at my roommate, even after 3 months. But he's been my shadow for those 3 months. He jumps in the car and would go with my anywhere. Farmers market, horseback riding, hiking, Home Depot... And it sucks because I fostered him as an adolecent and found him a home, but then they returned him and now I've returned him to the shelter and he doesn't deserve that. He is very handsome and I know someone will love him, but he's also really shy. It just really sucks and I needed to vent.
submitted by Spirit_Llama658 to FosterAnimals [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 23:10 icky_vicinity23 Who financed and protected Epstein? Who controls the CIA and the USA? When will Trump call them out? When will Biden call them out?

Who financed and protected Epstein? Who controls the CIA and the USA? When will Trump call them out? When will Biden call them out? submitted by icky_vicinity23 to conspiracy [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 23:01 Bukharin Andersonville Chamber of Commerce - Andersonville Farmers Market: Vangies Farm is back!

submitted by Bukharin to EdgewaterRogersPark [link] [comments]

2023.05.30 22:30 hapainthewild Underrated Farmers’ Market recommendations?

Holy cannoli the farmers markets around here are expensive! I stopped by the Santa Monica one recently and was blown away by the prices. So currently in search of other ones that are hopefully not as crazy to buy some fresh veggies. Would also love one that serves Asian greens like ong choy or pennywort! Thaaaanks friends :)
submitted by hapainthewild to LosAngeles [link] [comments]