Leatherman wave plus vs charge plus

Do I give my grandparents a second chance? Do I pretend to love them? Or do I cut it off?

2023.05.31 04:27 No_Crow_2265 Do I give my grandparents a second chance? Do I pretend to love them? Or do I cut it off?

Cast: Me (f 23) Brother (m 21) Sister (f 19) Grandma (f 70) Grandpa (m 68)
Situation: My siblings and I were adopted and raised by our paternal grandparents. Me and them have never gotten along. Things got very bad 7 to 4 years ago.
Tensions between me and my grandparents have simmered down since I moved out 5 years ago. Grandparents feel they don’t have a lot of time left and want to rekindle our relationship and “get close again”.
Things have drastically changed since I moved out: grandma and grandpa are claiming to be different people now. I sure am a different person too. They really hurt me in the past and I can’t trust them not to do it again, but my sister who still lives with them claims they have changed for the better.
A HUGE bonus and honestly the biggest reason I am even bothering to consider this situation is that I would rekindle and reconnect to my little sister, who comes as a package deal with my grandparents. I miss her so much.
Option 1: Give them a second chance
Fully commit, open myself up, be the real me, discuss and heal past issues and determine what we want our relationship to look like moving forward. If they really haven’t changed, this could mean opening up myself to a new wave of drama, arguments, manipulation, yelling, and trying to control me. True love is all about being vulnerable with the other person and I don’t know if I am capable of that with them because of how much they hurt me. Plus, I still harbor a lot of pent up anger and emotion regarding how I was treated.
Option 2: Pretend love them and “half” commit
Do, say, and act the part - say I love you at the end of all calls. Be nice but reserved. Keep my heart closed and don’t share the real me. I wouldn’t love them, but I wouldn’t let them know that.
I would give them more of what they want - a relationship. They wouldn’t know just how one sided it would be. I truly believe I can play the part well for many years if needed. Things might get tricky when I have kids, tho?
Option 3: keep it how it is and more or less cut it off
Right now we are more or less on “see you at family events” terms with a phone call thrown in for birthdays and Mother’s Day. I see their “public” face and they keep all of their issues to themselves and I keep all of mine to myself. In the last 3 years there have been next to no arguments, yelling, manipulating, or grabs for control over me. I’ve never been happier and I’ve started to no longer get anxiety attacks when I get a call or text from them. I so badly want to keep it this way. But they hate it and it apparently hurts them a lot.
Other important information: 1) They were so outright emotionally abusive and manipulative to the point I wished they would just hit us instead. Very controlling and strict parents.
2) When things “took a huge downward turn” and our relationship was at its worst, my grandma struggled very hard with having an independent, very emotional teenager (me) and the sudden death of her son/my dad. Since it’s been over 6 years there’s a very good chance she’s fully healed and she has changed since these issues are no longer as relevant.
3) my sister has hinted that my grandparents will never apologize for how they raised us and thus how they treated us (which is where ALL my beef with them is at). “They did their best and they are not sorry for that”. This doesn’t sit well with me and I think plays a big part in my struggle with this issue.
4) all of the things they did to support me they end up holding over my head and using as leverage to try to control me. They helped pay for my college and they make sure I don’t forget it. This happened again in our most recent conversation.
5) we are VERY different people. In the past they have been very vocal about their disproval of my views and actions. In the past, they have been very negative, nagging people with always something to complain about and I HATE being around people like that. A part of having a happy life is to surround yourself with happy people and people you like. Their previous selves would DEFINITELY not fit that bill.
FYI / non-relevant information: 1) Biological parents were druggies and our paternal grandparents stepped in once us kids were CPS-ed out of there. Mom died in 2008, a year after we were legally adopted.
2) I have a husband (m 23), moved an hour away, and am slowly living the life I dreamed of. Things are wonderful except for this issue.
3) I decided to start seeing a therapist because I clearly have a lot to work through. First session isn’t for another month.
submitted by No_Crow_2265 to Advice [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 04:11 R3dcentre Looking for urgent purchasing advice

Hey, I’m in Australia and trying to finalise a purchase, but am a bit conflicted over choice. I has settled on long range single motor (wanted the extra range, rather than extra power)with pilot lite and plus packs. Have a hard cap of $85k to keep below luxury car tax. Was hoping to take advantage of the run out offer of $3000 rebate plus home charger (which ends today) Can’t order a new configuration (stopped taking orders), and nothing with my preferred specs available. My choices are: LRDM with only pilot lite, (close to pulling the trigger on this, but not really happy with the loss of range and no killer sound)
LRSM with no packs (cheaper, but really want the adaptive cruise control from the pilot lite)
Wait for the right configuration, but miss the rebate (and it may never show up)
Wait for 2024 model (if I had more clarity on timing and pricing, probably my preferred option, but can’t get any info on timeframe or pricing).
Very interested in any input, specifically on: Real world differences in range from LRDM to LRSM Value if the plus pack (live the stereo and wireless charging, nervous about the seats in a hot climate) Speculation on Australian pricing and availability of 2024 models
submitted by R3dcentre to Polestar [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 04:06 tri666erwarning Ohio Parole/Probation/PRC question, and moving to WV question

In Ohio... I've been following the people caught in the same operation as me and out of the 7, 3 have so far accepted plea deals. 2 of them have got community control (this is probation? One got 3 years. And oddly the person with the most charges and most serious charges only got 1 year) and both got a 5 year PRC (post release control)
I thought PRC was only for people sentenced to prison? The 3rd person hasn't got their sentencing yet. I believe my attorney will have a plea deal for me soon but I thought I was only (possibly) getting probation, not PRC... Next court date is Monday.
My attorney told me not to worry about PRC as it's only for those who get out of prison, but this seems to not be the case. But everything I'm reading online also says only for after a prison sentence, but sex offenders have a mandatory 5 years, again what only seems after prison...
What's the difference between probation\community control and PRC? I really don't want to have to be on probation plus PRC and a registry on top of it... Does PRC happen during or after probation?
As for the second part... I have a girlfriend who lives in West Virginia. She knows everything and has her own home. We love each other very much. Will I not be allowed to visit her on probation or PRC? I guess that depends... But I noticed in WV they only have 2 tiers, a private 10 year and a public lifetime. If I was caught in a sting, no real victim, but "supposed" child victim will I be put on the lifetime? Would they look at what I was charged with when I accept my plea deal in Ohio and make a decision or go based off of the original charges? She said she would consider moving to Ohio for me, but I really would like a fresh start in another state... Has anyone moved to WV before while still registered in their state?
Thanks all...
submitted by tri666erwarning to SexOffenderSupport [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 04:00 EvidenceNo2322 [US-TX] [H] New “new” 3ds LL, GameCube games, sealed Xenoblade Chronicles X, Other [W] PayPal

Items from my personal collection are listed on top. Items from a lot that I picked up are below those. I’ll cover shipping on anything over $60. Highly prefer PayPal F&F because I have a good number of transactions on here - several pending from my last post as well. Feel free to shoot me reasonable offers. I am way more likely to cut someone a deal if they pick up several items.
New 3DS LL - This is an unused console. I ordered it new and opened once to make sure everything was in order. Can add homebrew software for additional $30, but would prefer to sell as is. Looking for $400
GameCube -
Animal Crossing (with official AC memory card) - $70
Kirby Air Ride - $75
Mega Man X Collection - $30
NBA Street Vol 3 - $30
Pikmin - $60
Pokemon XD Gale of Darkness - $190
Resident Evil 4 (Player’s Choice) - $35
Soul Caliber 2 - $25
Star Wars Rogue Squadron 2 - $20
Star Wars Rogue Squadron 3 - $20
Viewtiful Joe 2 (sealed) - $75
Zelda - Collector’s Edition - $80
Zelda - Ocarina of Time Master Quest - $70
Wii -
Animal Crossing City Folk - $18
Wii Sports Resort - CIB game only - does not include Wii Motion plus - $30
Wii U -
Xenoblade Chronicles X - Sealed - $90
The items listed below here are from a lot that I picked up a while. Priced lower due to quality and wanting to move them.
007 Everything or Nothing - $10
Batman Vengeance - $15
Bomberman Generation - $30
Dave Mira Freestyle BMX 2 - $8
Disney’s Extreme Skate Adventure - $28
Dragon Ball Z Budokai - Sold
Evolution Skateboarding - $10
Godzilla Destroy All Monsters - $32
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban - $10
Hulk - $10
Minority Report - $8
Muppets Party Cruise - $20
PAC-MAN Fever - $10
PAC-MAN World 2 - $12
Rayman 3 - $32
Scooby Doo! Night of 100 Frights - $20
Simpson’s Hit and Run - $60 Super Monkey Ball - $20
Taz: Wanted - $15
Ty the Tasmanian Tiger - $8
X2 Wolverine’s Revenge - $10
Indigo Controller (Slightly loose left stick, yellowing) - $20
Carnival Games - $4
Deca Sports - $4
Dragon Ball Z Budokai Tenkaichi 2 - $17
Family Fest presents Circus - $4
Just Dance - $4
Just Dance 2 - $4
Just Dance 4 - $5
Mario Strikers Charged (no case, included manual) - $8
Metroid Prime 3 - $9
Pokémon Battle Revolution - $25
Rayman Raving Rabbids - $3
Spectrobes Origins - $8
Sonic and the Secret Rings - $8
Super Mario Bros Wii - $25
WarieWare Smooth moves (rental case, manual included) - $15
WiiPlay - $4
Wii U
Repro case games -
Hyrule Warriors - $10
Mario Kart 8 - $12
Paper Mario Color Splash - $50
Super Smash Bros Wii U - $10
Loose Discs -
Assassin’s Creed III - $5
Assassin’s Creed IV Black Flag - $8
Batman: Arkham City Armored Edition - $10
Batman: Arkham Origins - $12
StarFox Guard - $5
StarFox Zero - $10
Batman Gotham City Racer - $20
Blue’s Big Musical - $5
RC Revenge - $5
The Land Before Time: Great Valley Racing Adventure - $5
Star Wars Battlefront - $10
submitted by EvidenceNo2322 to GameSale [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 03:45 WinesburgOhio Most iconic playoff moments and games in NBA history (about 100 of them)

I'm trying to list the most iconic or memorable playoff moments in NBA history. I didn't include series/championship-deciding injuries (too many) or great games by legends if their performance hasn't lived on as an iconic game (again, too many). There are a few recent ones, so we'll see if they stand the test of time. Although many of the older ones are unknown to most fans today, they were either big stories back then and/or known to most hoops historians now. Please let me know of any I may be missing.
4/8/50 - Bob Harrison's halfcourt buzzer-beater to win Finals Game 1 (which is actually the very first NBA Finals game ever)
4/21/51 - NY was down 0-3 in Finals but forced Game 7, and in it they went down big to come back and take a lead in final minutes before making mistakes to lose
4/10/55 - controversial Finals Game 7 ending (Syr vs FtW), Yardley accused Phillip of throwing the game
4/6/57 - Red Auerbach punched Hawks' owner Ben Kerner before Game 3 of the Finals
4/13/57 - crazy Game 7 for Boston's first title (Russell's "Coleman Play", Hawks nearly tied it on full-court inbounds play in final second of 2OT)
4/12/58 - Bob Pettit 50 pts to close out Finals
3/24/60 - Tommy Heinsohn's buzzer-beater to win EDF in Philly
4/5/62 - Sam Jones ECF Game 7 game-winning pull-up jumper over Wilt in last couple seconds
4/10/62 - Jerry West steal and buzzer-beating layup in Finals Game 3
4/14/62 - Baylor's 61 most pts in Finals game
4/18/62 - Russell's 30-40 in close-out game, Frank Selvy shot
4/15/65 - Havlicek stole the ball
4/29/69 - Sam Jones twisting, off-balance buzzer-beater in Game 4 of Finals (the "picket fence" play)
5/4/69 - Game 7 drama for Russell's last title (Wilt vs. BVBK), huge upset win in LA
4/29/70 - Jerry West 63-ft buzzer-beater to send Finals Gm 1 to OT
5/8/70 - Reed limps out, NY wins behind Frazier's monster game
4/12/74 - Jo Jo White's FT's with no time left win Gm 6 and first round series
5/10/74 - Kareem skyhook in final seconds to win in 2OT (plus multiple clutch Havlicek buckets, including near end of regulation and OT)
4/29/76 - Cleveland's Miracle of Richfield complete, multiple last-second wins by Cavs in series
5/16/76 - Barry maybe/allegedly sabotaged his team
6/4/76 - "Greatest Game Ever Played", Celtics top Suns in 3OT
6/5/77 - Bill Walton 20-23-7-8 closeout game for Blazers
5/18/79 - Bobby Dandridge hits jumper over triple-team and then gets steal at other end to win Game 7 of ECF for Washington
5/11/80 - Dr. J iconic baseline scoop shot
5/16/80 - rookie Magic's 42-15-7 to win title
5/5/81 - Bird's putback shot, Boston wins Finals Gm 1 (Bird 18-21-9)
5/23/82 - Andrew Toney ("Boston Strangler") scored 34 in Game 7, Celtic fans chant "Beat LA" for Sixers
4/27/84 - Isiah/King shootout
5/31/84 - Gerald Henderson steal
6/6/84 - best Bos/LA game ever, arguably most intense playoff game ever ("Tragic Johnson", McHale clotheslined Rambis, Maxwell choke symbol to Worthy, etc.)
4/18/86 - Dudley Bradley hit first ever 3-pt playoff buzzer-beater that was shot while team was behind
4/20/86 - MJ's 63 pts, playoff record (Bird: "That was God disguised as Michael Jordan")
5/21/86 - Sampson's crazy buzzer-beater to defeat Lakers
5/10/87 - Sleepy Floyd game (29 pts in 4Q, 39 in 2nd half)
5/26/87 - Bird steals Isiah's inbound pass
6/9/87 - Magic junior skyhook followed by Bird barely missing a 3, Gm 4 W for LA
5/22/88 - Bird/Dominique shootout
6/19/88 - Isiah's ankle destroyed, still goes ballistic in 3rd quarter, controversial ending
6/21/88 - Worthy's 36-16-10 closeout game
5/5/89 - Derrick McKey makes wild catch-and-lay-in buzzer-beater to win Game 4 and 1st round series for Seattle
5/7/89 - MJ "The Shot" vs. Cavs
6/14/90 - Vinnie Johnson great ending to win title
6/5/91 - MJ's change-hands lay-up vs LA ("Oh, a spectacular move!")
4/30/92 - Kemp's "Lister Blister", plus dunk on Gatling
5/11/92 - 153-151 Port/Phx, highest scoring playoff game
6/3/92 - MJ shrugged
5/5/93 - Mourning hit long-2 with 0.4 seconds left to win Game 4 and series for Charlotte
5/17/93 - Jordan's "The Shot, part 2" to beat the Cavs
5/20/93 - Barkley's pull-up jumper over Robinson to win WCSF
5/25/93 - Starks dunk on Bulls
6/2/93 - Down by 1 in the final seconds of Game 5 of the ECF, Charles Smith got blocked four times in a row by Bulls defenders, Chicago goes up 3-2
6/20/93 - John Paxson late 3-pointer wins Finals
5/7/94 - 8 Denver knocks off 1 Seattle (first 8>1) in Game 5, Dikembe laid on floor holding the ball
5/13/94 - Pippen won't take the floor as Kukoc hits game winner
5/20/94 - Pippen's dunk on Ewing
6/1/94 - Reggie's 25-pt 4Q comeback for Pacers, choke symbol to Spike Lee
6/17/94 - NBC cut to OJ Simpson chase during Finals Game 5
6/19/94 - Hakeem blocked Starks' 3 at buzzer to win, forced Game 7
5/7/95 - Reggie 8 pts in 9 seconds
5/20/95 - Mario Ellie's Kiss of Death
5/24/95 - Hakeem's most famous Dream Shake against MVP Robinson
5/29/95 - 4 lead changes in last 14 seconds, Smits game-winner
5/1/97 - Rex Chapman's miracle 3 to force OT (Suns/Sonics)
5/13/97 - huge Knicks/Heat brawl (Brown flipped Ward, led to 5 NY players suspended)
5/29/97 - Stockton buzzer-beater wins WCF
6/11/97 - MJ's Flu Game
6/13/97 - Steve Kerr's shot wins Finals
4/30/98 - huge Knicks/Heat brawl (Zo vs. LJ, Van Gundy on Zo's leg)
5/25/98 - Reggie 3 to win Gm 4 in ECF, jumps/spins in circles
6/14/98 - Jordan game-winner over Byron Russell in final game as a Bull
5/16/99 - 8 NY over 1 Miami, Allan Houston shot
5/31/99 - Sean Elliott Memorial Day Miracle
6/4/00 - Blazer 4Q meltdown in Gm 7 vs LA w/controversial reffing, Kobe to Shaq oop
6/14/00 - Kobe scored 8 in OT with Shaq fouled out to lift LA in Gm 4
6/6/01 - Iverson stepped over Lue in OT win
5/2/02 - Reggie with two buzzer-beaters (3 to go to OT, dunk to go to 2OT) before Nets top Pacers and advance to 2nd round
5/26/02 - Horry 3 to win Gm 4 of WCF after misses by Kobe and Shaq
5/31/02 - controversial Sac/LA 4th quarter in Game 6
6/15/03 - Duncan's 21-20-10-8 closeout game
5/13/04 - Derek Fisher shot with 0.4 seconds
6/19/05 - Horry carried Spurs to Gm 5 win with 21 pts in 4th/OT including game-winning 3
4/30/06 - Kobe two buzzer-beaters to beat Suns
5/14/07 - Horry hipchecked Nash, Suns suspensions turned WCSF
5/31/07 - LeBron scored final 25 pts for Cleveland in 2OT win to take 3-2 lead over Detroit
5/22/09 - LeBron 3 to beat Orlando
4/23/11 - Portland trailed by 23 in 3rd and by 18 at start of 4th, Brandon Roy came off the bench to score 18 of his 24 points in the 4th to beat Dallas
6/18/13 - Ray Allen shot gets Heat to OT and the improbable win
6/20/13 - nail-biter Game 7 with two great teams (Mia/SA), much closer than 95-88 final score
5/2/14 - Lillard's buzzer-beating 3 sends Portland to 2nd round over Houston
6/19/16 - LeBron's block and Irving's 3 led to epic Game 7 Finals win
5/31/18 - JR Smith thought Cleveland won in regulation and didn't pass to LeBron, Cavs lose in OT
4/23/19 - Lillard's long 3 over Paul George to end OKC's season
5/12/19 - Kawhi's game-winner over Embiid
8/23/20 - Doncic hit long step-back 3-pointer at buzzer in OT
8/26/20 - Bucks refuse to play because of a police shooting in Wisconsin, entire NBA postpones playoffs (in the Bubble)
6/19/21 - Bucks survive wild OT Game 7 over Nets (without Kyrie) in ECSF, Durant sent it to OT with 1 second left on a long-2 that was half an inch away from being a 3 that would have won it
7/20/21 - Giannis 50-14 in closeout game to win title
4/26/23 - Butler's off-balance, catch-and-shoot buzzer beater to send Game 5 to OT where 8 Heat knocked off 1 Bucks
5/14/23 - Tatum's 51 pts sets Game 7 record, breaking Curry's 50 from two weeks prior
5/27/23 - Derrick White buzzer-beater forced Game 7 after Boston was down 0-3 in ECF
submitted by WinesburgOhio to nbadiscussion [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 03:42 Clown300 Need help with my sony handycam ccd tr3000, battery might be messed up?

Need help with my sony handycam ccd tr3000, battery might be messed up?
So I ordered this camcorder from a reputable guy on the internet, and who's video showed the camera working properly, but everytime i insert the battery it does this. Sometimes it doesn't even flash at all.
The charging port light goes orange and then turns off just like the manual says it does when it's fully charged.
I'm pretty sure it's the battery that's the issue but I just wanted to make a post here since there's not really any active internet forums for handycams anymore. Plus I just wanted to figure out what the problem was before I buy anything or do anything that'll mess up the camera.
submitted by Clown300 to camcorders [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 03:36 NopeADope88 Experiencing telepathy with someone you haven't met yet? (Or have yet to meet)

Has anyone experienced this? Can anyone relate, give advice about this, or if you have questions about this I'm happy to answer. This is happening with someone I haven't met (I wonder if I'll ever meet them or even how that could happen), I dont know who they are exactly. Im new to the whole phenomenon - had, like, a huge "awakening" a couple months ago. Always knew I was intuitive (im also a skeptic in many ways, i feel it helps "ground" whats real vs. not real) but this got pretty crazy and overwhelming pretty fast, and so very real that it's confusing.
it is absolutely beautiful in many ways. but I have moments where I'm white-knuckling in my chair trying to keep my sanity and wondering if I'm going insane. And think I fall into depressions over it, but here's the kicker: I wonder if I'm feeling the OTHER person's depression actually. (I've been in the healthiest mental state I've ever been these past 6 months, no depression, and it will feel like im depressed for no reason other than my questioning of the whole experience.)
It started out mild and I noticed it. deduced it as something else. and then an onslaught of dreams happened sequentially connecting me with this "other person." Ridiculously vivid (more vivid than usual im a vivid dreamer). Then after that, a wave of VERY real telepathic-like experiences IRL that were almost dream-like, and then it was like this "relationship" was established. For example: I think this person lives in another time zone. I feel intense communication/energy from them when they go to bed (around 3 PM for me), and then they wake me up at my 4 AM when they get up (i "feel them leave"), which my guess is that's like more reasonable morn hours for them, like 8 or 9 AM? That's the only conclusion I can come to.
On the plus side they feel like an EXTREMELY sweet and supportive, good person (they help me with a lot of my inner dialogue/any challenges I deal with) but going through a terrible rough time in other ways, hence depressions...something in their life theyre having a hard time breaking away from. I try to help them in return with that, and it's a good bond, although we've had arguments too, kind of (LOL) about them making changes to deal with this depression, its like they dont value themselves enough to be brave enough to make this change they're kind of bull-headed about.
it's become so wild to suddenly find myself "talking" with this person at random points in my day (even just straight up goofing off) and feeling the overwhelmingness of the experience, their emotions, and tbh it has interfered with my everyday life (the different schedules). It's as if I'm living with a whole other person now! And I live alone!
What the hell do I do?!? I've come to actually really love and care about this person, which feels absolutely crazy. but sometimes I push them away, especially when they get bull-headed about their life, beating around the bush, but then the connection returns way stronger and they're almost frantic to stay connected. They've also stated many times they're frantic to find me and where I am, but I'm hesitant meeting this person with the life situation they are in and and don't want to change.
submitted by NopeADope88 to Telepathy [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 03:21 Lentriox Used Mazda 3 Turbo Premium Plus VS New Jetta GLI

My 2012 Avalon unfortunately had its transmission give out about two months ago, so I'm looking for a replacement. After a while of research, I've settled on two options (open to others, though.)
I found a new (only one in Houston, I might add) Jetta GLI DSG for around $35,000. It's very tempting. I cannot find a single Mazda 3 Turbo Premium plus, but it'd most likely be a used '22 with under 20k miles for around $30-33k.
So, my question is.. which of the two make the most sense? I drive from Houston to Dallas for college fairly often. After the Avalon, I wanted something with a little more kick (even though I beat on the Avalon as if it was a performance car, lol).
The Jetta has more features that I like, such as the fully digital dash, ambient lighting, etcetera. However, the Mazda is a hatchback and has AWD, and is quicker off the line.
I'm very torn, so any input would be appreciated. Thanks!
submitted by Lentriox to whatcarshouldIbuy [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 03:16 TheSeerOfVoid Now I have to let him down, cause I have no idea how to teach Substitute.

Now I have to let him down, cause I have no idea how to teach Substitute. submitted by TheSeerOfVoid to PokeMedia [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 03:08 Empty_Advice7902 The Dark Rise of One Piece: Anime's Loneliest Creator - The Eiichiro Oda Story!

The Dark Rise of One Piece: Anime's Loneliest Creator - The Eiichiro Oda Story!
Is One Piece the greatest Story ever told? A full Essay / Video Documentary on Eiichiro Oda and One Piece. To me One Piece is a masterpiece but it took a lot of sacrifices for Oda to become the best selling mangaka of all time. I just hope I did him justice. This is the Rise and Controversies of Anime and Manga's most dedicated Creator.
YouTube Documentary: https://youtu.be/obwz7ewVwnY
Upvote Goal is 100 (I hope you enjoy or learn something new)
At the time this is bring made is being made Eiichiro Oda has amassed an astonishing 230,000,000 Net Worth and is the creator of the highest selling manga of all time. One Piece has sold so many copies, that not only is Oda in the Guinness book of world records for the most copies ever sold of any manga or comic but it also puts his name in the top 10 highest selling fiction authors in human history. Engraving the name Eiichiro Oda next to William Shakespeare and JK Rowling. Oda is without a doubt one of the greatest and most creative story tellers of all time.

But this level us success and talent doesn’t come without sacrifices. Odas road to success is paved with A plethora of health issues both physical and mental, arrest and loneliness. One Piece has brought joy to millions of people and its success is something that Oda has dreamed of since he was 4 years old watching anime and Disney cartoons. Will act as a celebration of oda’s well earned achievements but also the over looked acknowledgment of the sacrfises, a-lot of Artist have to suffer through for our enjoyment, and dark untold truth of the manga industry. A Mangaka who escaped the industry even referred to it as “voluntary enslavement”. with an more infamous example being when kishmoto Creator Naruto and a rival of oda, finally finished his popular long running series, he reached out to oda to brag that he can now finally take a walk with his kid on a sunny day which would send the one piece author into a spiral but also motivated him to keep working so he could take walks with his family too one day.
Oda was born January 1st, 1975 in Kumamoto City Japan. From an early age he was obsessed with all things animated and cinema. Everything from Anime, Disney cartoons and Hollywood movies. By the age of 4 Oda had already began reading manga and immediately after he found out creating manga was a career! He couldn’t believe such a cool job existed and declared he would become a Mangaka to quote “avoid getting a real job” The manga that contributed the most to this epiphany was a series called “The Monster Kid” by fukiko a fujio. A story about a kid and his companions traveling through realms battling various Monsters. Oda claims that one of the panels from this specific manga was the first that made him want to draw and he would go on to draw endless copies of his favorite panel trying to get his drawings to look as good as Fujio’s. He simultaneously had fallen in love with an anime called “Vicky The Viking”
Monster Kid
A show that told the adventures of Vicky, a young Viking who would use his Witty and imaginative mind to help his friends out of tight situations.

Vicky the Viking
Vicky would spark odas life long fascinations with pirates and plant the seed for a idea that would eventually grow into one piece. you can see Vickies influenced sprinkled through out oda’s work. When odas dad found out about his sons newfound ambitions he decided to teach him to paint as he himself was a talented oil painter. oda credited his dad for his creative side and still shows off his dads paintings as the proud son he is. Oda became quite the proficient painter as well. One of his original paintings he did for a school project still hangs in his elementary school to this day
When oda got a little older and his manga taste matured He gravitated toward the Weekly shonen Jump. A anthogly of mostly action-based manga that targets an older demographic.
Oda also had started junior high around this time but admitted that it was rough for him and that he often didn’t enjoy it. The only time he would really feel happy was when he knew their was a new jump issue coming out the next day.
He loved Everything from legendary Gag series Kochikame, to the action comedy Kinnikuman.
A popular series in the Anthology called “Capatin Tsubasa” would even inspire oda to join his school soccer team just like the characters in the show. As you can tell he was a very impressionable and remains so to this day many of odas characters and themes are based of various pop culture icons like Jim Carrey, Eminem, the terminator and reservoir dogs to name a few you might know but also various Japanese acting and historical legends.
oda never dropped his love for soccer with his favorite team being Brazil. Oda revealed in a q and a that in the real world luffy would be from Brazil so I can’t help but to think this is influenced by “Capatin Tsubasa” oda would find his biggest influences though when he stubbled apon the series Dragon Ball. He was obsessed Toriyma’s art style and reread it more than any other manga. He loved his character designs and practicing them is why he said he got so good at drawing legendary buff dudes. But the most impactful thing Dragon Ball ever did for oda was show him how impactful manga could be.
When dragon ball was first gaining popularity oda remembers going to school and just seeing how his peers would react to the weekly releases. One day he would see his school get thrown into chaos by a single chapter.
“When Krillin died in Dragon Ball, the whole school was thrown into turmoil. I remember someone kept running and shouting in the school, "Krillin died!!" with Jump in his hand."
Seeing the influence a great story could have would completely reshaped the way oda looked at manga and reenforce his desires to master the craft himself.
This feeling would last with oda and the 2nd year of jr high he would start developing his talent and began drawing sketches for a pirate based manga. Over the next several years oda would continue draw everyday in his free time even at the cost of his sleep and friends. this would be foreshadowing for how obsessive he can be when he puts his mind to something. At the age of 17 he would quit soccer in an attempt to take his mangaka ambitions more seriously. He had learned about a very prestigious manga completion from a company called shueisha. It was called the tezuka award and it was given to the best manga submitted by aspiring creators.
During the same time Oda had taken a liking to an Western American Film called Young Guns, this would go on to inspire him to work 4 months on his first full-length Manga titled Wanted! it was an action gag comedy set in a western themed world.
Oda was very proud of this creation and was excited to submit it, but he was also concerned of his parents and teachers disapproving of his decisions to focus all his efforts onto something not school related. to fix this problem would submit his work under the pseudonym Tsuki Himizu Kikondo.
Being the unknown prodigy he was he would win 2nd Place and take home a 500,000 Yen cash prize. Winning this award at such a young age would send shock waves through the manga industry. many professionals within the business started keeping their eyes on him. In early 1993, Oda would go on to get several interviews and his Manga would get published in Shueisha's Mezase Mangaka! Around this time he would drop his pseudonym and start going by his real name. Showing that he was growing a lot more confident in his work. His first professional interview would even be published in Oda’s Hometown’s most prominent newspaper. Odas life was changing fast. It was getting harder and harder for even his haters to doubt his talent. Later that year he graduated high school and entered Kyushu Tokai University under the architecture program. although he never used his architectural talents in the actual field,
I can’t help but to think in played a massive part in his unique city and island designs in one piece. During university oda would continue submitting more of his work to Shueisha. Not knowing his previous win already qualified him for a spot for a monthly off shoot of the weekly Shonen Jump.This spot is is where oda would release his next manga. “God's Gift for the Future”
Gods Gift
This manga followed a pickpocket named bran that wanted to change his way of life but couldn’t stop his bad habits. through a series of events he winds up with a magic death note book gifted from god that can not alive anyone by writing the exact date and event in the notebook. look im just gonna say it. Gods gift for the future came out in October 1993 and Death note came out a decade later in 2003. Im not saying Ohba copied teenage odas work but there are alot of similarities and I found some threads that already been disscussing the topic.
If you read all of odas work in release order, you can see how each one gets progressively better and more complex. And he defiantly has two things he was good at from the begginning. Character development and world building. Part this is due to oda admitted just loving the characters he creates and he even said cries while drawing emotional or sad scenes they have to go through.
But being the near physcoeopathically ambitious machine he was. even at a young age He wasn’t satisfied with only being in a Monthly release magazine so the following year in 1994 he decided to enter a contest named Hop-Step Awards with a Manga named Ikki Yako, Oda won first place with Ikki Yako giving him his first undisputed success as a Mangaka.
Ikki Yako
With the back back awards and victories, oda was finally believing he had an actual chance at his dream coming to fruition, so the same year in 1994 he would drop out of university to pursue he career as a professional Mangaka. Dropping out of college is a huge deal in Japan. Even if you become a success some people will look down on you as school is seen as a right of passage to many Japanese citizens. Not as a option as it is in some other countries. Japans unique out look on hard work educationally and professionally will contribute to the dark concepts we will explore in the latter part of the video. And if you remember oda specifically didnt like school and often struggled to find enjoyment while being there. With some impressive accolades under his belt and a new found freedom oda would move to Tokyo under the charge of his editor Karou Kushima this was his officially start as as a true Mangaka. Oda had gotten a job at shonen Jump as an assistant as many inspiring mangakas do. He made practically no money but it was a necessary stepping stone all mangaka have to take if they want shot of publishing there own work one day. Some work as assistants for years or even decades with never getting that chance and often break under the extreme exceptions pushed onto them by the industry.
Odas first assistant Job was for shinobu kaitani’s midoriyama police gang. It was only for the last few chapters of the series and would last just a month. But Oda claims it was extremely busy month for him and he gained an immense amount of experience about the production of a professional manga.
After his manga finished Kaitani would leave Shonen Jump, Oda was sent to another Mangaka assisting creator Masaya Tokuhiro through the final years of their Manga Jungle King Tar-Chan. Tokuhiro was also the creator of the more famous Kappaman.
Oda would work for Tokuhiro for a very long time. Tokuhiro was infamous for being very resistant with allowing others to help with the important parts of his work. This was hard for oda because the free time he got after his 12-14 hour shifts he would spend drawing cool ideas for his own stories and ideas he thought might work for tokukiros but his boss would never even entertain one idea, but oda would still learn alot during this time period. specifically improving his skills of background and crowd art. During this time oda would create and submit serval of his own stories to his editor kushima. and pretty much all of them would be immediately dismissed. This would hurt but he would try to not take the harsh criticism to heart. But this would all change when Oda would create and release his next manga Monsters!
After throughly rereading it and then going back to all of his old works he began to see many of his inadequacies. This motivated oda to work even harder to fix his mistakes. He started thinking maybe his editor was right telling him he wasn’t ready yet. Oda was now sleeping only 5 hours night and began skipping meals because they took up to much time that he could be using to improve his craft.
When Kappaman ended in Mid-1996 his new boss would also move on from shusisha and oda entered his final assistant tenure under the esteemed Nobuhiro Watsuki. Working on the best selling Manga Rurouni Kenshin or Samauri X.
This would be huge for oda! Watsuki was one of the most popular mangaka not just in shonen jump but in all of Japan! He also was known to have a way more laid back style then odas previous editors. Watsuki allowed assistants to be involved in his work, speak their mind and would even review their ideas seriously. that doesn’t mean he would improve them but he felt being involved and getting hands experience was the best way to learn not just busy work for hours on in.
Oda would thrive in this environment! and one of his ideas would actually pass all the hurtles and he even was credited in the Rurouni Kenshin Manga for coming up with the Character Honjō Kamatari. The great scythe. The was huge for oda and added alot of creditably to his suggestions moving forward. Oda would never forget the faith watuski sensei had in him and unfortunately this would come with some grave consciences later on.
Oda was enjoying his time in watsuki studio but he remained troubled by the fact his ideas for Manga drafts continuously got rejected.
Oda decided since all his new ideas wasn’t cutting he would revamp his original idea for an anime. In a last resort style effort oda began work on a pirate themed manga. He decided to call it Romance Dawn. Not feeling hopeful oda would submit it to his editor. But to odas surprise Mishima was very impressed by it and would approve for it to go into further development immediately. It would debut in a shonen jump summer special and received much praise from the readers. During the production of romance dawn oda would fall under the supervision of a new editor takanori Asada who would also believe in romance dawn. He would arrange for oda to fill the gap in the weekly shonen jump that was coming up. This was an incredibly rare and unique opportunity. Oda accepted and immediately created a 2nd version of romance dawn! Within 2 weeks it was approved by Asada as well. But a weird thing was happening. The readers Loved the unique Pirate themed story and odas handlers believed in it and saw the potential greatness in oda’s work but the higher ups where very skeptical and doubtful of Oda’s concepts and refused it entirely!
Romance Dawn
They didn’t wanna try anything new. They wanted more of what worked. Basically dragon ball 2.0s but oda specially set out to make the exact opposite, this was because of 2 of odas earlier influences. Dragon ball, He loved the fights and designs but wished it was more story driven and a much more random influence was the wizard of oz. Oda loved the adventure aspect of it and implemented it into many of his works but he hated the ending of the classic movie. He thought the “The real treasure was the friends we made along the way” troup was stupid. That fans deserve build up and pay off. Oda basically was inventing the slow burn of mangas. That pull you in through world building not just flashy fights. Lucky for Oda asada wasn’t having any of his supervisors nonsense and would wage war on them proclaiming that oda has something great on his hands and he would continue this campaign for months.
and in May 1997, One Piece had finally been approved for publishing in Weekly Shonen Jump. If you love one piece make Sure you show resect for asada because it wasn’t for him we might have never been blessed which such a great story. Remember this was odas last ditch effort and who knows what would happen if it had failed.
Soon after, Oda resigned from being Watsuki Assistant on good terms, and became a full-fledged professional Mangaka himself at the age of 22. His adventure was about to reach hights and pitfalls that he could have never imagined.
And if you wanna follow me own my own adventure to be the pirate king of YouTube. This video was suppose to be saved for my 5000 subscribers special but I was so excited to drop it I couldn’t wait!
it would be cool if you could get this reddit thread to 200 upvotes
One Piece:
This is it Oda’s obsessive nature and hard work has payed off and he wasn’t about to let it go to waste. He would double down his effort once more and from this point forward things would start moving incredible quickly.
Oda would take everything’s he learned and created over the years and start immediately drafting the first 8 chapters of One Piece. Asada would lend him a hand and help him refine his ideas and offer some advice he thought could give One Piece a higher chance of success. He gave oda the advice of spicing up the first couple chapters. He thought oda had a great concept but that it wasn’t interesting enough and needed more stakes. Something too hook people and leave them wanting more. This lead to the idea of the Shanks incident in the first chapter. I think this was a great decision and set the tone for the rest of the story.
On July 1997 Weekly Shonen Jump #34 had premiered the first chapter of One Piece titled Romance Dawn giving homage to his Romance Dawn Manga that started it all. When they finished they was pretty sure they had something great on their hands but they was so nervous in wouldn’t do well. They couldn’t shake their butterflies and when the 1st Volume released Oda and his editor would hide in a bookstore and watch the customers and when they seen a little boy buying the one piece volume they would shout with pure joy! This is the cutest one piece fact and know and definitely one of my favorites because it shows how much one piece really means to him. His passion would blend onto the pages and pay off. By the end of the 1st year one piece would sell 300,000 copies. Making it a hit.
But this is again nothing compared to what would come. only one year later this number would grow to 6 million copies sold with no sign of slowing down. By 1999 one piece had reached over 17,000,000 prints and would receive a full length anime adaption that would be an instant smash across Japan. By 2001 oda was only 26 years old and the world was at his finger tips. He was a best selling mangaka and was getting all the interviews and festival bookings he could handle. But the most life altering appearance would happen at Jump festa 2002.
Why watching the performances he would see 22 year old Chiaki Inaba a model, idol, actress, Campaign girl and Race Queen. A artistic genius in her own right. During her show she would perform in a Nami swan cosplay. Showing her love for her favorite anime character that happen to be created by Oda who was in the audience. Her beauty and talent left oda smitten. It was like a romance anime scene. He had no choice but to introduce him self later the same day. They would hit it off and her personality had him hooked. Over the next 2 years they would begin seeing each other, squeezing in dates between her performance and oda busy work schedule. In 2004 they would get married opting to have a private wedding with only their closes friends attending.
Around 2004 one piece and shonen jump was more popular then ever. Manga and anime was spreading world wide. but there was an unprecedented surge in anime’s popularity in the west. The catalyst for this weeb take over would be thanks to 3 shonen Anime. One Piece, Naruto and Bleach. That would be deemed the Big 3. A titled bestowed on the 3 most popular anime of the 2000s. 3 series that completely carried shonen jump in this time period. Every anime fan in the world had one of these 3 in their top spot. later this era would be called the “Golden Age” of shonen Jump. The gap in sales of these 3 vs other series was mind blowing. And to this day the consistency of their popularity would never be repeated.
All 3 of these mangaka where living their dreams but anyone with their level of ambition wants to be the best not just top 3. The 2 creators with most smoke for each other would be One piece’s Oda and Bleach’s Kubo.
They 2 manga titans have had a 20 year beef that have left their fans constantly comparing the 2. The origins of this entanglement actually started because of our previously mention manga award that oda won for romance dawn. Kubo had entered the same competion and felt his win was a sure in and that it would be the launch to his own professional Mangaka adventure! But after bleach was out voted by romance dawn pushing his dreams back years. Bleach wouldn’t be released in jump til 2001! Kubo would holds oda personally responsible. in a 2017 interview when asked how he felt about his rival and he would respond saying “ I hate Oda” and revealed the 2 had a hairy run in in the 1990s.
A few years later oda would have a chance to respond in his own interview during a bleach exibxit for its 20th anniversary. He was asked about Kubo and said “ years ago kubo publicly announced he hates me? Do you want to know if I hold a grudge?” “Yes I do” he went on to say he didn’t knew in kubo meant it in a perticaly rude way or in a competitive way. He said kubo has always had a competitive spirt and was a hard worker but that he does have some audacity, to to say that in public. Oda was letting everyone know he is still always down for the smoke. He would draw Kubo’s character ichigo in the one piece art style and submit it to the exhibition.
Oda Draws Ichigo
I love both anime but their lives sounding like real life anime rivals makes their series even better. It shows how much they both love and belive in their series.
Check here down
Oda and Naruto creator kishimoto also consider their self rivals but in a very different way. in 2015 oda admitted that Naruto is more popular than one piece world wide. He apricates it but it makes him jealous.
In 2016 kishimoto said he wanted to surpass one piece in manga sales but sadly was never able to before Naruto ended.
Since then one piece popularity in the rest of the world has exploded so the final results aren’t in yet. But either way
The 2 have been the dominate 2 in the world for 2 decades constantly exchanging spots.
They’re respect for each other is evident as shown Through out both series easters are hidden shouting out the others manga.

But the most wholesome but scary example happened in 2013. Oda had become notorious for his machine like work ethic. He was only sleeping 3 hours a night and often would sleep at his work desk so he could wake up and be able to get back to work faster. This would cause his health to disintegrate and he would be hospaitalized. Knowing oda doesn’t like to take days off kishimoto would show up to his hospital room to check on his friend and would be shocked to see oda working on a up and coming one piece chapter. Kishimoto understood this level of work ethic better than anyone else could as arguably the other most successful mangaka of all time. Instead of asking him to stop he pulled up a chair and helped oda with his work on which woukld relived to be the legendary Dressrossa arc. A personal favorite arc of mine as you can see my avatar is designs after the arcs antagonist. They wanted this arc to be special as to not let his fans down because of his sickness.

As of 2023 One Piece has sold more than 500 million copies. selling more copies than batman and harry potter. Oda is the best selling mangaka of all time and 10th highest selling fiction author in human history. The Anime adaptation of his manga is a smash hit and is growing more popular ever day. Olympians have stuck one piece posses before wining metals. Hollywood celebs have declared their love for one piece like averal lagive who eventual would send oda 2 songs for one of his movies, Jamie lee Curtis who mention robin as her favorite characters on several q and as, marvel director taika waititi rocked a luffy sweater on several occasions. One Piece film’s latest film release Earned over 15 billion yen making in the 6th highest grossing movie in Japanese history. The 4 year old that wanted to be a great manga would be so proud of oda but what has oda sacrificed for this level of success. We touched it own it a little in the kishimoto segment but to really understand or believe the truth that im about to tell you have to understand a terrifying concept in Japan called karoshi.
Karoshi as phenom in Japan that translate to “over work death” in Japan the work culture is alot more extreme then most people outside of Asia can even comprehend. Japan has a 0 excuse policy in many companies not all but many. In these environment you are expected to finish all the work you are giving no matter how long it takes you. Even if you do finish your work you are not permeated to leave until anyone who is your senior is finished and you are expected to go help then instead of going home to see your family.
In 2012 a documentary film maker by the name of allegra Pacheco visited Japan when she heard about the concept and was shocked to see how common this was. She would follow salavery men from their jobs and would discover dozens of them would pass out on the streets or on bus rides from complete exhaustion unable to even make it home or even move. these extreme hours leads to Japan having a high percent of work related deaths from stress heart attacks and sadly self inflicted.
As of 2022, 23 percent of Japanese workers logged more than 80 hours of over time each month. Because this 1 and 5 Japanese workers are at risk of passing away from Karoshi.
The Japanese government never even acknowledged this problem. That was until a 24 year old who had logged 105 hours of over time, wrote on social media that she was physically and emotionally shattered and leaped off a tall building to her end. Unfortunately this isn’t uncommon. Bcc said that it is the single highest C.O.D of men aged 20-44 in the country. there is even an infamous unalive your self forest in Japan that is the go to spot to do so. This forest gained world wide acknowledge when controversial youtuber Logan Paul went there for a day of vlogging and filmed a victim of karaoshi while his friends laughed.
Understand that this a different culture don’t judge them to harshly. Im not saying this work culture is okay but its a very complicated subject. There is a theory that this was Japan’s way of restoring its economy after world war 2. with a your company is your family and you should give it all to them mindset.
I dont think these traits of these phenom are a exactly comparable to oda for one reason. Oda does thing willingly. no one is forcing him to do this with his level of wealth and influence he could easy retire or reallocate the more time consuming work but instead he opts to take on the brunt of the load. This doesn’t make his fans any less concerned.
Based on odas own words and interviews with his editors Oda works 21 hours of a day. The few hours he sleeps is often not even concurrent but instead broken up into 30 minute intervals through his workday whenever he gets a chance. That way he doesn’t have to relocate and can get back to work faster. When he does sleep the 3 straight hours he aims for 2am-to 5am. That way he is still the first back at the office. Other mangaka in the industry refere to oda a machine. As even though he is producing a weekly manga his art is on pare with months release manga. as where manga like Vinland saga have entire months to work on releases oda has to come out with a chapter and episode every single week and it still competes with the season series in quality. He does all this with working with the smallest team possible so he can fill more attached to his work. This goes so far that when he has to re tell passed events. He re draws them instead of reusing old art work to save time like most artist.
His editors reportedly thinks and talks about one piece 24/7 even when he isn’t working. When his editor Naoki Kawashima joined odas team he said oda told him to “die for One Piece” he went on to insure him. If you destroy your health do to your work ethic. I will forever take care of your family financially.
Dont think of this as oda being a bad boss. Just a acknowledge of series they take what they are creating. I watched and read dozen of interviews in peroration for this video and I couldn’t find 1 of his employee that had anything negative to say about him. Everyone who has worked for oda said it it so fun and welcoming environment. That when you see how hard he works it makes you want to work hard to and do your part to contribute to the greatness that is one piece. Oda doesn’t even want fame he just wants to create a great series. In all his interviews he hinds his face or request to have it covered in post edits.
Japan loves oda. He can’t walk down the street without be swarmed by fans. In his interview grown man giggle with glee everytime he speaks. Which makes me happy they respect him as much as I do. That being said his unhealthy life leaves them very worried and oda knows his fans are concerned. even after 20 years he work schedule has eased up.
In a 2021 tv interview oda opened up about he doesn’t have time to bathe, shave or even eat. He has got so lost in work that his asstaince have to come and ask him to please eat something. He does just forget sometime but other times he doesn’t eat on purpose.
in 2012 oda said “The only way I can think of new ideas is to think about it alot without sleeping and eating. Because humans can only come up with truly new ideas when they reach they’re limit. So every time I am done with my manuscript I am completey exhausted.”
This statement is beautiful but sad to me.
Especially when you factor that oda has got moderate diabetes and goutes as a result of his work schedule and being in his work chair for so many hours at a time.
In the same interview he said he always bathes before seeing his family to wash off his work mode. but that he rarely gets a chance to see them. As we mentioned, after Naruto ended kishimoto bragged to oda he can now talk a walk with his son when ever he wanted as a flex to oda about finally finishing his series as a fellow obsessive he knew the kinda pressure oda lives under and the sacfrices he is making. Them have a personal relationship may have been a way of kishmoto pleading for oda to take a break, as they have even been to each others houses. Oda only gets to visit his home once a week as he sleeps in his studio the other 6 days. So his only sees his daughters and wife 4 times a month. One reason is he finds this necessary to keep his weekly deadlines. The 2nd but sadder reason is oda fears if he spends more time with them than that he will want to stop making one piece because he will miss his family to much… one of the only times oda wandered if he should quit one piece was on one of his weekly visits his daughter said “dad you are to busy to spend time with me”
Oda is currently Bringing in 30 million dollars a year from one piece royalties alone. He is currently the richest mangaka to ever live. So he is dedication to his craft is completly by choice as he has long since passed the threadsold of retirement wealth. Oda keeps going to make all of his fans and people who believe in him proud. In a marizine interview in 2017 oda said “My fans are worried about my short sleep but sleep is just a waste of time I prefer collecting information for manga. I want to become a robot that doesn’t need sleep. Even when I go on trips with my family I dont sleep much”
This level of obligation for his fans is endearing but it was his loyalty to his formal sensei that would cause the most damaging controversy in oda’s entire career.
In November of 2017 Tokyo Metropolitan Police lead a a raid on a residents house they had been investigating on suspicion of the sell of CP. During the analysis of the purps computer they found the evidence they needed but also a link that lead them Shockingly to the one and only Nobuhiro Watsuki. Yes the creator of rurouni kenshin and Sensei to our own Eichhiro Oda. Shortly after watsuki house and studio was raided. The investigators suspicions where unfortunately confirmed and over a 100 dvd was confiscated as evidence. With some of the victims of the tapes being as young as 10 years old. He was arrested and during the interrogation he immediately confessed and went into a unnecessary amount of detail to the investigators
“I like girls in the higher grades of elementary school to the second grade of junior High” After he was charged shuisha put his series on indefinite hiatus. This sent shock ways through Japan as up to this point he was one of best selling and most respected mangakas ever and lots of new rising talent came from his tutor-edge. His reputation was tarnished but he controversially received the lightest sentence legally possible. A fine of only 1800 $ and never served a single day in jail. People where understandably out raged when it became public.
Which is how oda stumbled into the cross hairs of this PR disaster.
It all started with a tweet from shonen jump stating oda and watauski will be doing a joint interview on April 24th 2020.
During the q and a Oda was asked what it was like working for watsuki and oda said “ I worked for him just under 4 months. Which Maybe the happiest moment in my entire life."
The fanbase was instantly split down the middle. With one side declaring that even remebering fondly about someone who did what watsuki was charged was blasphemy and that it was in away supporting him. This side even share a short lived “Cancel Oda” hash tag. The other side felt like since oda has never done anything of the sort him self and didn’t know anything about it, he shouldn’t be forced to rewrite his history that lead him to where he is now. Even Watuski wife didn’t know what he was up to. Oda has only have good things said about him from his employees and from what i can tell is a great kind person who has donated lots of money to charities and his hometown. even though i am bias as a one piece super fan. I think the truth as always lies somewhere in the middle. Oda is without a doubt though one of the greatest and most successful writers in human history but let me know what you think of Oda Sensei in the comments.
Video: https://youtu.be/obwz7ewVwnY
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2023.05.31 03:07 raffles-to-central Why McDonalds and restaurants in Singapore are on similar price level as Hong Kong

First I have to make it clear that for restaurants I am not making reference to hawker centres in the two cities.
The commercial rent level in Hong Kong has been known as high, and so is the wage level for fnb sector. While in Sg where foreign workers are allowed which have lower wages than their Hong Kong counterparts.
However when look at the price of meals of McDonalds there and compare those in SH they are not much different. (Even a lower BigMac index in HK - HK 2.62 vs SG 4.37, 2020) plus lot more choices in menu.
A similar situation goes for restaurants as well. If Hong Kong enjoys lower cost on vegetable or meat from China, so does SG get from MY.
Whether it is there are a higher customer flow in HK that can justify a lower profit margin, or other reasons
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2023.05.31 03:03 pentacontagon wtf happened to GPT-4

wtf happened to GPT-4
I've been seeing a lot of posts about GPT-4 being nerfed, but those were all speculations and nothing really concrete was presented. I wasn't sure whether it was actually being nerfed.
Ever since GPT-4 was released, my go-to way to check if some random AI was using GPT-4 is asking "what is the 5 letter word opposite to start". No other AI could do that other than GPT-4 (they'd always say "end" or "stop" - even Bing wouldn't get it right, Demonstration of Past GPT 4 vs Bing). GPT-4 on the official website would always, without fail, come up with "cease", which is the perfect answer (I've tested this like over 5 times throughout when it was released, I even tried to gaslight it that cease wasn't 5 letters and it insisted it was).
I'M DONE. Like I don't even know what I'm using. Did OpenAI just whip out GPT-3.5 out to fool Plus members and save money? They're literally the same thing now.

Edit: Added previous post link showing how GPT-4 and Bing answered before
submitted by pentacontagon to ChatGPT [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 03:00 AutoModerator The Boss Wars, episode one

Gaia, god of Earth vs God Lord! Fight!
Gaia uses Earth Strike! 400 damage!
God Lord uses Multiverse Eye! Plus 80 defence for God Lord!
Gaia uses Four Leaf Clover! Critical Hit chance quintupled!
God Lord uses God Laser! 550 damage!
Gaia uses Titan Blast! CRITICAL HIT, 300 damage is now 900 damage!
God Lord is now TITAN LORD!
TITAN LORD uses Star Storm!
Gaia defends using Vine Grasp!
Gaia uses Poison Flower! 100 damage!
ULTRA LORD uses Last Hope! 2500 damage!
Gaia is now SHINY GAIA!
SHINY GAIA uses Eradicate! 800 damage!
SHINY GAIA uses infinity! 999999999 damage!
submitted by AutoModerator to bossideas [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:59 NovaBooBear Drowning and Hopeless

I just need to vent. My car has been repossessed and I have no way to get it back.
I’ve been having financial issues for some time despite having a well paying job now. A 2019 divorce hit my finances hard. Employment issues during Covid followed. Maxed out credit cards and was struggling. Got a decent job that I ended up getting cut from during massive layoffs after a company buyout. Unemployment lasted way too long as I struggled with a domestic issue, my father’s death and a really bad reaction to anti-depressants. My credit was trash by the start of this year.
My father left me some money that I’ll never see. My mother moved the account into her name and refuses to give it to me. My father suffered from a long battle with leukemia and he sat me down to discuss his funeral arrangements, finances and my inheritance. My mother never wanted to be a part of these conversations because they were upsetting which is why he had them with me, so that I could handle the hard stuff when he passed.
I had an auto lease that ended and I just kept making monthly payments while trying to qualify for a loan to buy it out, but eventually they just charged off my loan and just came last week to repossess it. To get it back I need to come up with $15k within the next two weeks or it gets auctioned off and I still owe the money anyway. I’ve been rejected from a dozen loans today.
I asked my mother for help. I always hated asking her for things so I don’t. But since my dad left me money that she refuses to give me access to, she’s my only option. I have a sister who my dad also had money set aside for but she’s borrowed twice that amount from them over the last three years so that account is closed. She’s mostly blown it on drugs and decisions worse than mine but they always helped her because she’s got one thing I don’t, a child.
I’ve cried so much today. I have the ability to make payments, I WAS making payments, but my credit score is garbage so I can’t get a loan. If I could pay to get it back I could clean it up and resell it for more than what is owed. My car is five years old and I see the exact year and model still selling, used, for the initial sticker price. Yeah I’d be without a car still but at least I wouldn’t have the extra debt. If I don’t get it back I’m still responsible for what I owe plus all sorts of extra fees. My mother first tried to act like there wasn’t that much in the account but I reminded her that it was my inheritance she stole and that I’ve physically reviewed the account with my dad. She replied that she needs it in case something goes wrong with the house. I know she’s worried about those things but I also know what her monthly expenses are and how much she’s collecting from my dad’s pension and social security because I’ve gone over it in detail with my dad. She didn’t need to take the money he left me and it’s more than likely slowly filtering over to my sister.
Every time I think I have a way out of the hole I’m in, I go deeper. I currently make more money than I ever had but all my money goes to rent and debt. I could still make a loan payment but I can’t GET a loan so I’m just stuck and it’s getting worse. I am overwhelmed and alone and I just kind of give up. No matter what I do my situation just gets worse.
Thanks for letting me vent. I’m just a rotating cycle of anxiety attacks right now and feel hopeless and like a complete and utter failure.
submitted by NovaBooBear to TrueOffMyChest [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:57 1ce_W1nd Anyone paid for ToyotaCare Plus Service Drive? Is it a good buy?

My beloved 21 rav4 hybrid limited will be 2 years old in October and it's been great not having to budget for oil changes and service costs with new car benefit of Toyota.
But that's ending in October and im wondering if financially it works out better to get the plus service vs paying outa pocket? After the stress filled covid car buying hell I went through, I'm keeping this at least 10 years or more
submitted by 1ce_W1nd to rav4club [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:51 Conscious_Balance_56 Listing my thoughts on Whatifalthist and other history-themed YouTubers + other stuff

Gee, ain't this an original post?
I've been subscribed to alternate history and history channels for around 5 years now, and like anyone who was growing up with this stuff in my playlists, my tastes changed. I recall jumping between the channels of socialists, moderates, conservatives masquerading as libertarians, and apoliticals. I lurked in r\PoliticalCompassMemes for a good month. Then came watching reply videos that thoroughly dissect and debunk points made by larger YouTubers like Whatifalthist or (if you know him) Shaun taking down points raised by PragurU. After a while, I settled on just hating big corporations, urban sprawl, and Reagan in particular.
I'm somewhat concerned that I could follow all sorts of philosophical trains of thought and agree with them completely at that moment, and then feel unsure when my subconscious disagrees with itself based on invisible scruples that I've collected from other videos that I've largely forgotten. Political videos are less fun when afterward you realize that you must now attempt to separate your thoughts from the person you have been listening to for an hour or more. It's especially difficult when you don't write essays for a living.
Now onto the point of this post, if it had any to begin with: My thoughts on the people I'm subbed to> I used to watch Monseuir Z but unsubbed after he jumped off the deep end into alt-right content. I recall watching his ethnostate video and while not agreeing with it, being unable to really critique it well other than "eugenics are unethical"-- a failure on my part.
> I slightly approve of AlternateHistoryHub's vagueness in his videos, but understand how frustrating that can be. I do like him adding more potential timelines per video concept lately. Props to him for the art style and for having IMO the most fun prompts, like a habitable moon.
> Whatifalthist needs an editor (though he probably won't because that might count as peer review), different and newer sources from past the 1970s, and to get off Twitter. Many of you on this subreddit have critiques better than mine, but I agree that Rudyard has been spiraling for the last 2 or 3 years-- pretty much since Covid started. It's annoying because while his videos still feel informative, I never know if they actually are or if they are instead based on old predictive models treated like facts.
> Second Thought is just so very aggressively opinionated in its delivery that it's hard to take it seriously. Every one of this channel's videos is emotionally charged and accusatory, but sometimes that is aimed at the injustices of corporate corruption instead of making assumptions about its viewers.
> Sisyphus 55 seems all over the place to me nowadays, but I watched the channel once for summaries of Jordan Peterson and Nietzsche, two philosophers who I now don't respect.
> exurb1a, aka drug turtle, counts somewhat since I find his existentialism interesting and densely poetic. The guy isn't exactly down to earth in his topics though.
> Shaun, aka skull guy with shades, got my attention as a reporter critique on the shenanigans that conservative channels/influencers try to pull. He's also an urbanist who supports train infrastructure, so he's got my sub.
> Adam Something is a Romanian YouTuber who I subbed to for learning about the stupidly unsustainable architectural projects planned by rich oil oligarchs, and he surprised me by also providing detailed news for the war in Ukraine, plus train activism. No complaints.
> Alan Fisher: Urbanist youtuber who covers public transit and reasonable urban planning.
> Innuendo Studios is generally built around a playlist called the Alt-Right Playbook, which is a left-leaning guide to identifying bad-faith arguments, plus trying to understand how people become alt-right. He's leftist enough to be concerned that it influences his arguments, but I'm somewhat leftist so who am I to say?
> I appreciate CaspianReport's professionalism, but they seem to always put a flair for the dramatic in their news reports that make sit come off as alarmist at best, and mis-informational at worst. Similar to TLDR news, they cover a wide variety of events like a rumor mill.
> Kyle Hill, cool science guy that he is, has recently made a video that seems relevant to questioning the validity of many online science videos that history fans often cross into.
> I recently found that Robert Riech, former Secretary of Labor under the Bill Clinton administration, has his own youtube channel. He occupies the same place in my queue as the person below.
> Leeja Miller, who I've only subbed to recently, has largely confirmed my hatred of the Reagan presidency by covering many of the reasons that the economy has worsened while companies continue to make more and more profit every year.
> J.J. McCullough, a Canadian pop culture channelist, has covered a lot of American sociological patterns that seem relevant to the act of thinking about sociopolitics by itself. This video of his makes the point that education, politics, and entertainment have congealed over the last decade or two, and it is what inspired this post.
> LegalEagle is interesting when my feeble mind can tolerate legal speak long enough to know why so-and-so political figure is in deep shit. Very informative, too fast for my liking.

...and I've probably driven most people off by now. Thanks if you read this far, Idk what I meant to accomplish with this.
submitted by Conscious_Balance_56 to Whatifalthist [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:43 m2wtf 20 [TF4F] New England USA - Sweetheart Looking for a Cutie lol <3

Hiya folks of Reddit :)
Do you ever wish, when you come home from a long day's work, that there was a caring, affectionate girl full of warmth waiting to talk to and care for you? Maybe you can unpack the day with her, or just talk about your mutual interests and hobbies while she listens and comforts you. Someone who has depth, and wants to see every facet of you and your wonderful personality? Look no further!
My name's Chloe, and I might just be the girl for you! I feature a caring heart, listening skills of a god, and a near-infinite stockpile of knowledge that is absolutely useless! Also, I have AWARD-WINNING HUGS! Please, I love hugging and cuddling, so just lemme hug you :).
Nitty-gritty facts section! I'm a trans woman, and a former college varsity athlete (bonus points if you can guess the sport), and I'm majoring in History and Classics. [send a bear emoji if ur reading this ;)] Hopefully, I'll either be a high school teacher or a college professor one day. I am a massive Star Wars fan, and my favorite tv shows/movies are usually historical/historical fiction or science fiction. I also make art! I'm mostly doing wood sculpture and drawing to relax these days :)
What I'm looking for from you! A kind person (women + femmes get priority, but everyone's welcome!) who will treat me well, will be there to support me through my transition, and will positively impact my day :). Also a plus if you're on the more in-charge side of the spectrum, both in conversation and in the bedroom ;).
Anyways, thanks for reading, and I hope to hear from you soon! <3
All the best, Chloe xo
submitted by m2wtf to r4r [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:42 m2wtf 20 [TF4F] New England USA - Sweetheart Looking for a Cutie lol <3

Hiya folks of Reddit :)
Do you ever wish, when you come home from a long day's work, that there was a caring, affectionate girl full of warmth waiting to talk to and care for you? Maybe you can unpack the day with her, or just talk about your mutual interests and hobbies while she listens and comforts you. Someone who has depth, and wants to see every facet of you and your wonderful personality? Look no further!
My name's Chloe, and I might just be the girl for you! I feature a caring heart, listening skills of a god, and a near-infinite stockpile of knowledge that is absolutely useless! Also, I have AWARD-WINNING HUGS! Please, I love hugging and cuddling, so just lemme hug you :).
Nitty-gritty facts section! I'm a trans woman, and a former college varsity athlete (bonus points if you can guess the sport), and I'm majoring in History and Classics. [send a bear emoji if ur reading this ;)] Hopefully, I'll either be a high school teacher or a college professor one day. I am a massive Star Wars fan, and my favorite tv shows/movies are usually historical/historical fiction or science fiction. I also make art! I'm mostly doing wood sculpture and drawing to relax these days :)
What I'm looking for from you! A kind person (women + femmes get priority, but everyone's welcome!) who will treat me well, will be there to support me through my transition, and will positively impact my day :). Also a plus if you're on the more in-charge side of the spectrum, both in conversation and in the bedroom ;).
Anyways, thanks for reading, and I hope to hear from you soon! <3
All the best, Chloe xo
submitted by m2wtf to ForeverAloneDating [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:41 Niners22 Premium Plus vs Economy experience SFO - NRT

The way back was in economy class NRT - SFO
submitted by Niners22 to unitedairlines [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:35 MasonryGaymer Noveske N4

Noveske N4 submitted by MasonryGaymer to airsoft [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:21 Dowdidik Schizophrénie - Une vue d'ensemble.

Schizophrénie - Une vue d'ensemble.
Ceci est une traduction de l'article suivant : McCutcheon, R. A., Reis Marques, T., & Howes, O. D. (2019). Schizophrenia—An Overview. JAMA Psychiatry, 1. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.3
Il permet d'avoir une bonne vue d'ensemble sur ce trouble. C'est parti :
La schizophrénie est une maladie mentale courante et grave que la plupart des cliniciens rencontrent régulièrement dans leur pratique. Ce rapport présente une vue d'ensemble des caractéristiques cliniques, de l'épidémiologie, de la génétique, des neurosciences et de la psychopharmacologie de la schizophrénie, afin de fournir une base pour comprendre ce trouble et son traitement. Cette revue éducative est intégrée à un cas clinique afin de mettre en évidence la façon dont les résultats des recherches récentes peuvent éclairer la compréhension clinique.
Le premier thème abordé est le rôle des facteurs de risque environnementaux et génétiques au début de la vie dans l'altération des trajectoires neurodéveloppementales qui prédisposent un individu au trouble et conduisent au développement de symptômes prodromiques. Le deuxième thème est le rôle du déséquilibre cortical excitateur inhibiteur dans le développement des symptômes cognitifs et négatifs du trouble. Le troisième thème porte sur le rôle des facteurs de stress psychosociaux, des facteurs psychologiques et du dysfonctionnement sous-cortical de la dopamine dans l'apparition des symptômes positifs du trouble. Le dernier thème aborde les mécanismes qui sous-tendent le traitement de la schizophrénie et les effets indésirables courants du traitement.
La schizophrénie a une présentation complexe et une cause multifactorielle. Néanmoins, les progrès des neurosciences ont permis d'identifier le rôle de circuits clés, impliquant notamment les régions frontales, temporales et mésostriatales du cerveau, dans le développement des symptômes positifs, négatifs et cognitifs. Les traitements pharmacologiques actuels utilisent le même mécanisme, à savoir le blocage des récepteurs D 2 de la dopamine, ce qui contribue à leurs effets indésirables. Cependant, les mécanismes de circuit discutés ici identifient de nouvelles cibles potentielles de traitement qui peuvent être particulièrement bénéfiques dans les domaines de symptômes qui ne sont pas bien desservis par les médicaments existants. Le défi clinique1 de ce numéro du JAMA Psychiatry décrit un patient que les cliniciens connaissent bien : une jeune femme qui développe des hallucinations auditives, des croyances inhabituelles et une détérioration des capacités cognitives et de la fonction sociale, et qui est diagnostiquée schizophrène au début de l'âge adulte. Le diagnostic de schizophrénie repose sur une évaluation clinique. En réponse aux préoccupations concernant la fiabilité du diagnostic, les premières descriptions narratives du trouble ont été remplacées par des critères codifiés (encadré). Les symptômes positifs, tels que le délire et les hallucinations, sont souvent la raison pour laquelle le patient se présente au clinicien. Cependant, le trouble est également associé à des symptômes négatifs, tels que la démotivation et le retrait social, ainsi qu'à des symptômes cognitifs, notamment des déficits de la mémoire de travail, des fonctions exécutives et de la vitesse de traitement. Si les descriptions les plus récentes mettent l'accent sur les symptômes positifs (encadré), les conceptualisations antérieures considéraient les symptômes négatifs comme des caractéristiques essentielles du trouble2 et les symptômes négatifs et cognitifs contribuent de manière substantielle à la charge à long terme associée au trouble.3 Le trouble apparaît généralement au début de l'âge adulte et une période prodromique précède fréquemment le premier épisode psychotique (figure 1).
La schizophrénie a une prévalence sur la vie entière d'environ 1 %4 et représente un fardeau énorme pour les soins de santé, avec des coûts annuels associés aux États-Unis estimés à plus de 150 milliards de dollars5. Le fait qu'un trouble touchant environ 1 % de la population soit associé à de tels coûts s'explique par le fait que la maladie se déclare généralement au début de l'âge adulte et par les altérations à long terme des fonctions sociales et professionnelles associées à la maladie (figure 1).6 Le trouble est également associé à une espérance de vie réduite : une personne atteinte de schizophrénie a une espérance de vie moyenne inférieure d'environ 15 ans à celle de la population générale et un risque de 5 % à 10 % de décès par suicide au cours de sa vie.7 Dans cette revue, nous examinons les résultats de la recherche épidémiologique, génétique, neuro-imagerie et préclinique afin de donner une vue d'ensemble de la schizophrénie et d'examiner les lacunes qui subsistent dans les connaissances.

Encadré. Critères du DSM-5 pour la schizophrénie
Les critères A, B et C doivent être remplis et d'autres causes de symptômes doivent être exclues.
Deux ou plusieurs des symptômes suivants doivent être présents pendant une période d'un mois ou plus, et au moins l'un d'entre eux doit correspondre à l'item 1, 2 ou 3 :
1. Délires
2. Hallucinations
3. Discours désorganisé
4. Comportement grossièrement désorganisé ou catatonique
5. Symptômes négatifs, tels qu'une diminution de l'expression émotionnelle
Altération d'un des principaux domaines de fonctionnement (travail, relations interpersonnelles ou soins personnels) pendant une période substantielle depuis le début de la perturbation.
Certains signes du trouble doivent persister pendant une période continue d'au moins 6 mois. Cette période de six mois doit comprendre au moins un mois de symptômes (ou moins, en cas de traitement) répondant au critère A (symptômes de la phase active) et peut inclure des périodes de symptômes résiduels. Pendant les périodes résiduelles, seuls les symptômes négatifs peuvent être présents.

Thème 1 : Convergence des facteurs de risque génétiques et environnementaux précoces sur le développement neurologique

Le patient du cas du Défi clinique 1 a des antécédents de complications périnatales. Bien que la schizophrénie apparaisse généralement au début de l'âge adulte, de nombreux éléments indiquent que sa pathogenèse commence tôt dans le développement neurologique.8 Ces éléments comprennent des taux accrus d'adversité in utero, tels que les infections maternelles et la famine pendant la grossesse, et des complications obstétriques, y compris la naissance prématurée et la pré-éclampsie.9-11 Il existe également des preuves de perturbation du développement neurologique précoce, telles que des marqueurs cutanés d'altération du développement ectodermique et de légères déficiences cognitives et motrices pendant l'enfance.9,12 Ces déficiences peuvent se manifester par un retard scolaire par rapport à ses pairs, comme c'est le cas pour la patiente du Défi clinique.1
Le patient en question a également des antécédents familiaux de schizophrénie. Des études sur les jumeaux et d'autres études ont régulièrement montré que la schizophrénie a une forte composante génétique, l'héritabilité étant estimée à environ 80 %.13 L'héritabilité se réfère à la part de la variabilité du trait dans la population qui est attribuable à la variation génétique interindividuelle et ne permet pas d'estimer le risque au niveau individuel ou d'identifier des loci génétiques spécifiques associés au trouble. Ces dernières années, les progrès technologiques et la baisse des coûts ont rendu possibles les études d'association à l'échelle du génome (GWAS), permettant une approche non biaisée et fondée sur des données pour identifier les loci associés à la schizophrénie.14 Les études d'association à l'échelle du génome montrent que de multiples variants communs, chacun ayant un faible effet, sont associés à la schizophrénie. Après ajustement en fonction du nombre de tests, plus de 100 loci sont significativement associés à la schizophrénie.14 Ainsi, la schizophrénie, comme beaucoup d'autres maladies courantes, est un trouble polygénique chez la plupart des patients. Le développement des études d'association pangénomique a également permis de construire des scores de risque polygénique, qui fournissent un résumé du risque génétique de la maladie sur la base du nombre d'allèles à risque que possède un individu, pondéré par le rapport de cotes associé à chaque allèle. Il existe également des variantes génétiques impliquant la suppression ou la duplication de sections d'ADN (variantes de nombre de copies) qui sont associées à un risque fortement accru de schizophrénie en soi, mais qui ne se retrouvent que chez 2 à 3 % des personnes présentant des cas de schizophrénie. L'un des mieux établis est une délétion de plusieurs mégabases d'ADN au niveau du chromosome 22q11.2, qui est associée à un risque de 30 à 40 % de développer une schizophrénie au cours de la vie.15,16 Il faut également reconnaître que, comme pour les facteurs de risque environnementaux, de nombreuses variantes génétiques associées à la schizophrénie peuvent également être associées à d'autres troubles psychiatriques, ce qui suggère un chevauchement des facteurs de risque et, potentiellement, des mécanismes.
Cependant, même chez les vrais jumeaux, la concordance par paire pour la schizophrénie n'est que d'environ 50 %.17 Cela souligne l'importance des facteurs environnementaux et de leurs interactions avec les facteurs génétiques pour augmenter le risque de schizophrénie. Par exemple, Ursini et al18 ont récemment démontré que le risque de schizophrénie expliqué par les scores de risque polygénique était cinq fois plus élevé chez les personnes ayant connu des complications périnatales, ce qui indique une interaction entre les facteurs de risque génétiques et obstétriques. En outre, chez les personnes n'ayant pas connu de complications obstétricales, le score de risque n'a pas permis de différencier les patientes des participants de contrôle. Il est intéressant de noter que ce sont les gènes fortement exprimés dans le placenta qui expliquent ces résultats, ce qui suggère que certaines variantes de risque de schizophrénie agissent en augmentant les résultats (ou peut-être la probabilité) des risques environnementaux, tels que les complications obstétricales, qui peuvent alors perturber le développement du cerveau.19
Plusieurs stratégies ont été utilisées pour identifier les voies moléculaires à partir des résultats des études d'association pangénomique. Une approche a utilisé les données d'expression génique de plus de 500 cerveaux pour comparer les individus atteints ou non de schizophrénie.20 Les gènes pertinents ont été identifiés en examinant comment les données d'expression génique reflétaient les loci impliqués par les GWAS, et ces gènes ont ensuite été testés dans des systèmes modèles pour évaluer la pertinence fonctionnelle.20 Ce processus a permis d'identifier les gènes impliqués dans la régulation de la membrane postsynaptique, la transmission synaptique et les canaux potassiques voltage-gated comme étant associés à la schizophrénie. Une approche complémentaire axée sur les données a permis de mettre en correspondance les résultats de l'étude d'association pangénomique avec les profils d'expression génique de différents types de cellules neuronales afin d'identifier les types de cellules susceptibles d'être affectés par les variantes de la schizophrénie. Ces résultats ont montré que les gènes associés au risque de schizophrénie ne sont pas exprimés dans toutes les populations neuronales, mais qu'ils le sont spécifiquement dans les cellules pyramidales de l'hippocampe, les neurones à épines moyennes et les interneurones corticaux21. Une troisième approche fondée sur des hypothèses a étudié le locus du complément 4 (C4) au sein du complexe majeur d'histocompatibilité, l'un des loci les plus fortement associés à la schizophrénie.22 Avec des travaux ultérieurs, cela indique que l'élimination synaptique par la microglie, médiée par le complément, est perturbée chez les personnes atteintes de schizophrénie.23 Plusieurs voies identifiées par les études génétiques ont également été mises en cause par les études post-mortem, y compris les découvertes de niveaux inférieurs de protéines synaptiques, d'épines dendritiques et de marqueurs de l'acide gamma-aminobutyrique (GABA) -ergiques et glutamatergiques chez les personnes atteintes de schizophrénie par rapport aux participants de contrôle.24,25 Dans l'ensemble, ces résultats suggèrent qu'un fonctionnement aberrant du complément et des systèmes microgliaux dans la schizophrénie peut conduire à la perte d'épines dendritiques. Les conséquences potentielles de ce phénomène sont abordées dans le thème 2.
Dans l'ensemble, la recherche suggère que les facteurs de risque génétiques et environnementaux précoces perturbent le développement du cerveau, en particulier dans certains sous-types neuronaux et certaines régions cérébrales. Le risque de développer une schizophrénie s'en trouve accru (figure 1).

Thème 2 : Déséquilibre cortical excitateur-inhibiteur et développement des symptômes cognitifs et négatifs

La schizophrénie se développe généralement au début de l'âge adulte, comme on l'a vu dans le cas du Défi clinique1 ; elle est rare avant l'âge de 16 ans. Cela montre qu'en plus des facteurs génétiques et des facteurs liés au développement précoce évoqués ci-dessus, d'autres facteurs agissent plus tard et conduisent au trouble (figure 1 et figure 2). La patiente du Défi clinique1 a rapporté qu'elle avait commencé à prendre du retard dans son travail scolaire au début de l'adolescence et qu'elle avait remarqué des difficultés de mémoire croissantes avant son premier épisode psychotique. Les déficits cognitifs et les symptômes négatifs observés dans la schizophrénie attirent peut-être moins l'attention clinique que les symptômes positifs, mais ils sont responsables d'une grande partie de la morbidité associée à ce trouble.26 Ils commencent généralement avant l'apparition du premier épisode psychotique,27 les fonctions cognitives étant considérablement plus faibles chez les personnes risquant de développer une schizophrénie que chez les individus témoins appariés.28

Figure 1. L'évolution clinique de la schizophrénie. - Les personnes qui développent par la suite une schizophrénie peuvent présenter de subtiles déviations motrices et cognitives pendant l'enfance, mais ne présentent pas les retards de développement marqués associés à l'autisme et aux déficiences intellectuelles. À la fin de l'adolescence ou au début de l'âge adulte, une phase prodromique caractérisée par des symptômes psychotiques, négatifs et cognitifs atténués et une déficience fonctionnelle précède souvent le premier épisode psychotique. Le premier épisode psychotique survient lorsque les symptômes atteignent le seuil requis pour un diagnostic clinique, par opposition aux symptômes sous-seuils observés dans le prodrome (bien qu'ils puissent encore être débilitants). Le premier épisode psychotique est souvent le premier contact avec les services, bien que les patients cherchent de plus en plus à obtenir de l'aide au cours de la période prodromique. Les symptômes positifs répondent généralement bien aux médicaments antipsychotiques, mais les symptômes négatifs et cognitifs répondent moins bien et peuvent même être exacerbés par les médicaments antipsychotiques dans certains cas. La plupart des patients rechutent après l'arrêt du traitement antipsychotique, mais le risque de rechute est réduit par la poursuite du traitement antipsychotique, même lorsque les symptômes psychotiques ont complètement disparu. Cette figure met également en évidence certains facteurs de risque clés pour le développement de la schizophrénie, ainsi que des changements neurobiologiques considérés comme pertinents pour le développement des symptômes. Il convient de noter que l'altération de la synaptogenèse et de l'élagage synaptique n'a pas été clairement démontrée in vivo, et que la chronologie précise de tous les changements énumérés n'est pas claire.
Le développement neurologique précoce se caractérise par la production de connexions synaptiques, qui se poursuit pendant l'enfance avant de passer à l'adolescence à l'élagage synaptique, de sorte que le nombre de synapses chez un adulte est environ la moitié de celui d'un jeune enfant.29 Les conséquences à grande échelle de ce phénomène peuvent être observées dans les réductions du volume de matière grise au cours de l'adolescence et au début de l'âge adulte et dans la réorganisation concomitante des réseaux cérébraux tant structurels que fonctionnels.30 Une hypothèse de longue date propose que ces processus soient perturbés dans la schizophrénie, conduisant à des altérations généralisées de la communication neuronale et au développement de déficits cognitifs chez les personnes atteintes de ce trouble.31 À l'appui de ce point de vue, des études d'imagerie ont montré que les trajectoires normales de développement sont perturbées dans la schizophrénie, avec une perte accrue de matière grise et une organisation aberrante des réseaux apparaissant dès le début de la maladie, et que cela est associé à des déficits cognitifs32-35.
Les circuits neuronaux responsables des réseaux cérébraux fonctionnels et de la cognition ont été largement étudiés. De nombreux processus cognitifs, tels que la mémoire de travail, sont sous-tendus par des oscillations neuronales synchronisées36, en particulier celles qui se produisent à environ 40 hertz, appelées oscillations gamma. Ces oscillations sont à la base des fluctuations lentes de l'activité neuronale observées à l'aide de l'imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle et, en tant que telles, jouent un rôle majeur dans la détermination de l'architecture des réseaux cérébraux fonctionnels.37,38 Chez les individus sains, ces oscillations neuronales et ces réseaux fonctionnels ont été associés à un large éventail d'aptitudes cognitives.39 Dans le cas de la schizophrénie, des études électrophysiologiques ont systématiquement montré une synchronisation perturbée des oscillations neuronales chez les patients souffrant de schizophrénie chronique et d'un premier épisode de psychose,40 et ces anomalies ont été associées à des symptômes cognitifs et négatifs.40,41 Ces oscillations sont le résultat d'un équilibre finement réglé entre des groupes de neurones inhibiteurs et excitateurs (figure 3). En particulier, les interneurones GABAergiques jouent un rôle central dans la régulation de l'allumage rapide des neurones pyramidaux nécessaire à la génération de ces rythmes à haute fréquence.40,42

Figure 2. Circuits corticaux, oscillations neuronales et réseaux cérébraux dans la schizophrénie. - A : Chez les individus sains, la sortie excitatrice des cellules pyramidales corticales est tempérée secondairement par l'inhibition de l'acide gamma aminobutyrique (GABA) par les interneurones. L'interaction entre les neurones excitateurs et inhibiteurs génère des oscillations gamma, qui sont à leur tour essentielles à la génération de fluctuations lentes de l'activité neuronale qui sous-tendent les réseaux cérébraux fonctionnels. B : Chez les personnes atteintes de schizophrénie, plusieurs mécanismes semblent être altérés dans ces circuits corticaux. La perte des épines dendritiques des cellules pyramidales entraîne une réduction nette de l'activité excitatrice (1) ; la réduction de l'apport excitateur aux interneurones GABAergiques entraîne une réduction de l'inhibition des cellules pyramidales (2) ; et une réduction de l'inhibition des cellules pyramidales par les interneurones se produit (3). Il est proposé que ces altérations conduisent à une activité gamma aberrante et à un dysfonctionnement des réseaux fonctionnels, contribuant ainsi aux symptômes cognitifs et négatifs de la maladie.
Les études post-mortem permettent de mieux comprendre les altérations moléculaires qui pourraient être à l'origine des oscillations neuronales et du dysfonctionnement du réseau observés chez les personnes atteintes de schizophrénie (Figure 3). Ces études ont révélé une plus faible densité d'épines dendritiques sur les neurones pyramidaux43 , des niveaux inférieurs d'ARN messager de parvalbumine et de marqueurs d'autres sous-types d'interneurones inhibiteurs43, ainsi que des niveaux inférieurs d'ARN messager de glutamate décarboxylase 67 (GAD67) et de protéine GAD67, une enzyme impliquée dans la synthèse du GABA, qui suggèrent ensemble que les mécanismes inhibiteurs sont altérés44 . Comme indiqué dans le thème 1, on pense que la microglie joue un rôle clé dans l'élagage des synapses,22,23,45 et il existe des preuves in vivo d'une altération des marqueurs microgliaux chez les personnes atteintes de schizophrénie.45,46 Cela suggère que la perturbation de l'élagage synaptique pourrait contribuer à la diminution du nombre d'épines dendritiques chez les personnes atteintes, ce qui affecterait à son tour l'activité excitatrice des cellules pyramidales.47 Les anomalies de la fonction du récepteur N-méthyl-D-aspartate et de la signalisation glutamatergique peuvent également contribuer à la perturbation de l'équilibre excitateur-inhibiteur.48 Ensemble, ces perturbations ont le potentiel de conduire à des anomalies, telles que l'altération des oscillations gamma et la perturbation de la coordination des fonctions cérébrales, conduisant à une organisation aberrante des réseaux cérébraux fonctionnels. Cette fonction neuronale perturbée peut alors contribuer au développement de symptômes cognitifs et de symptômes négatifs primaires.42,43

Thème 3 : Dysrégulation sous-corticale de la dopamine et apparition de la psychose

Le patient du Défi clinique1 appartient à une minorité raciale/ethnique et a grandi dans une ville à forte densité de population. Ces facteurs et plusieurs autres facteurs de risque environnementaux ultérieurs sont associés à un risque accru de développer une schizophrénie (tableau). Les recherches indiquent qu'il est peu probable que ces associations résultent de différences génétiques entre les membres de différentes races/ethnies ou de préjugés chez les cliniciens50 et qu'elles exercent plutôt leur influence par le biais de réactions aberrantes dans le circuit de la réponse au stress, en particulier l'amygdale et le cortex frontal, qui conduiraient à une sensibilisation du système dopaminergique sous-cortical (figure 3).51-56 D'autres facteurs psychosociaux stressants, tels que les événements de la vie, augmentent également le risque de développer une schizophrénie.57 C'est ce que montre la patiente du Défi clinique1, dont le décès du père a précédé l'apparition du premier épisode de psychose.

Figure 3. Stress, dopamine et psychose. - Les facteurs de stress psychosociaux sensibilisent le système dopaminergique sous-cortical afin d'augmenter la réponse aux déclencheurs ultérieurs, tandis que les déficits corticaux signifient que le contrôle régulateur est également altéré. Les déclencheurs ultérieurs, tels que le stress, entraînent alors une libération inappropriée de dopamine au niveau du striatum. Cela conduit à l'attribution aberrante d'importance aux stimuli et au développement de symptômes psychotiques. La psychose elle-même est stressante, ce qui peut entraîner un retour d'information qui perturbe encore plus le système.

Tableau des facteurs de risque liés au déclenchement de la schizophrénie.

Plusieurs sources de données indiquent que le dérèglement sous-cortical de la dopamine joue un rôle dans le développement de la psychose, notamment des études montrant que les amphétamines et d'autres drogues qui libèrent de la dopamine induisent des symptômes psychotiques chez des volontaires sains et aggravent les symptômes chez les patients atteints de schizophrénie.58,59 Les études d'imagerie moléculaire ont permis de mieux comprendre la nature et la localisation anatomique des altérations de la dopamine dans la schizophrénie. Elles démontrent in vivo que la capacité de synthèse et de libération de la dopamine striatale est plus élevée chez les patients que chez les participants témoins et qu'une plus grande libération de dopamine après l'administration d'amphétamine est directement associée à l'aggravation des symptômes psychotiques chez les patients.59-62 En outre, la capacité de synthèse de la dopamine striatale est plus élevée dans la phase prodromique63,64, est spécifique aux individus en état prodromique qui développent une psychose65, et s'aggrave avec l'apparition de la psychose.66 Avec les preuves que l'épuisement des niveaux de dopamine striatale67 ou le blocage des récepteurs de la dopamine réduit les symptômes psychotiques chez les patients, cela suggère que le dérèglement de la dopamine est probablement une voie finale commune vers la psychose chez la plupart des patients.
Des études visant à comprendre le rôle de la dopamine mésostriatale dans le fonctionnement normal du cerveau indiquent comment la perturbation de ce système pourrait potentiellement conduire aux croyances délirantes décrites dans le Défi clinique.1 Des travaux précliniques ont démontré que l'activité des neurones dopaminergiques mésostriataux est associée à l'écart entre les récompenses attendues et les récompenses réelles, ce que l'on appelle un signal d'erreur de prédiction de la récompense.68 Il a ensuite été démontré qu'en plus de signaler les informations associées à la récompense, les tirs des neurones dopaminergiques codent les stimuli aversifs et autres stimuli non gratifiants69,70 et sont spécifiquement impliqués dans la mise à jour des croyances après des stimuli significatifs, par opposition à des stimuli simplement surprenants71.
Des données provenant de nombreuses modalités suggèrent que la schizophrénie est associée à un dérèglement du tir des neurones dopaminergiques mésostriataux72, ce qui signifie que la signalisation de la dopamine est découplée des stimuli saillants. Cela fournit une explication neuroscientifique à des phénomènes cliniques fréquemment décrits par les patients, comme la patiente du défi clinique1 qui attribue une importance particulière au numéro de la maison de son voisin sans raison évidente. Plusieurs facteurs peuvent alors contribuer au développement et au contenu des croyances délirantes. Les expériences vécues dans la petite enfance, telles que les brimades ou la maltraitance, peuvent entraîner des biais cognitifs, comme la tendance à considérer les événements négatifs comme résultant des actes hostiles d'autrui. Ces biais cognitifs sont plus fréquents chez les personnes présentant un risque de schizophrénie.74 On le voit dans le Défi clinique1 : la patiente avait été victime de brimades à l'école et avait développé un schéma cognitif selon lequel les gens étaient généralement menaçants et n'étaient pas dignes de confiance.75 Compte tenu de ces expériences et des biais cognitifs qu'elle avait développés en conséquence, il est facile de comprendre pourquoi elle pouvait arriver à une interprétation persécutrice de son expérience et conclure qu'il y avait quelque chose d'extrêmement pertinent à propos de ses voisins. Il est également pertinent que la signalisation dopaminergique dans le striatum dorsal ait été associée à la menace, car il s'agit du site où le dérèglement dopaminergique est le plus important dans la schizophrénie et qui contribue donc potentiellement au fait que les délires ont souvent un contenu persécutoire.60,69

Thème 4 : Traitements actuels de la schizophrénie

Dans le Défi clinique1, la patiente s'est vu prescrire de l'amisulpride et ses symptômes psychotiques se sont améliorés, mais elle a ensuite développé des effets indésirables extrapyramidaux, qui se sont améliorés après une réduction de la posologie. Ces effets indésirables peuvent être compris en termes de neurobiologie de la schizophrénie et de mécanisme des drogues antipsychotiques. Tous les traitements pharmacologiques actuels de la schizophrénie sont des bloqueurs des récepteurs D 2 de la dopamine, et les études de tomographie par émission de positons (TEP) chez les patients concernés montrent qu'une occupation importante des récepteurs D 2 de la dopamine, généralement supérieure à 60 %, est nécessaire pour obtenir une forte probabilité de réponse.76 Les données du thème 3 fournissent une explication de cette efficacité, car elles indiquent que le blocage des récepteurs D 2 atténue les conséquences d'une libération dérégulée de la dopamine au niveau du striatum. Les études de tomographie par émission de positrons ont montré que les effets indésirables associés au mouvement deviennent plus probables lorsque le taux d'occupation de la D 2 est plus élevé, généralement supérieur à 80 %, ce qui explique ces effets indésirables courants et suggère une fenêtre thérapeutique pour le traitement (figure 4).77

Figure 4. Bloqueurs des récepteurs de la dopamine, réponse au traitement et effets indésirables. - Des études de tomographie par émission de positons portant sur des drogues antipsychotiques antagonistes des récepteurs D2 ont montré qu'une occupation des récepteurs D2 striataux supérieure à 60 % est généralement nécessaire pour que le patient ait une forte probabilité d'amélioration, mais que des niveaux d'occupation supérieurs à 80 % sont associés à une forte probabilité d'effets indésirables sur le plan de la motricité. Cela suggère qu'il existe une fenêtre thérapeutique d'environ 60% à 80% d'occupation des récepteurs D2 par les drogues antipsychotiques qui équilibre une forte probabilité d'amélioration avec un faible risque d'effets indésirables sur la motricité. Heureusement, les doses autorisées pour la plupart des drogues antipsychotiques récemment homologuées correspondent généralement à cette plage d'occupation. Il existe des exceptions à cette fenêtre thérapeutique ; par exemple, les personnes ayant un métabolisme rapide peuvent avoir besoin de doses plus élevées, les agonistes partiels occupent une plus grande proportion des récepteurs D2, et la clozapine conduit généralement à des niveaux plus faibles d'occupation D2. Des études de tomographie par émission de positons ont également montré qu'un taux élevé d'occupation des récepteurs D2 ne garantit pas une réponse, ce qui indique que si l'occupation des récepteurs D2 est nécessaire chez la plupart des patients, elle n'est pas suffisante chez certains d'entre eux.

Les études TEP prospectives portant sur l'occupation des récepteurs et la réponse clinique ont généralement étudié les réponses à court terme chez des patients pendant quelques semaines. Or, le traitement de la schizophrénie est généralement administré à long terme et, à notre connaissance, on ne sait pas si le même niveau d'occupation des récepteurs D 2 utilisé pour le traitement à court terme est nécessaire pendant des mois pour réduire le risque de rechute. Une autre question potentielle est de savoir si le traitement à long terme induit des changements dans le système dopaminergique. Il existe des preuves (bien que limitées) que le traitement à long terme avec des bloqueurs D2 puissants peut être associé à une augmentation des niveaux de récepteurs D2 striataux chez certains patients.78 Cependant, cela a été observé chez des patients prenant des doses relativement élevées de drogues antipsychotiques de première génération plutôt que des drogues antipsychotiques de deuxième génération généralement utilisées à l'heure actuelle, et doit encore être démontré dans des études prospectives.
Après une résolution initiale de ses symptômes positifs, la patiente du Défi clinique 1 a ensuite interrompu son traitement et a connu une rechute de ses symptômes positifs. Les drogues antipsychotiques semblent avoir peu d'association avec la fonction dopaminergique présynaptique79 et peuvent en effet sensibiliser le système dopaminergique.78,80 Étant donné l'absence de toute association permanente avec un dysfonctionnement dopaminergique sous-jacent, les taux élevés de rechute après l'arrêt du traitement antipsychotique sont attendus, et un traitement d'entretien à long terme est recommandé dans les directives cliniques.81
Bien que les symptômes positifs se soient améliorés avec le traitement dans le cas du Clinical Challenge1, les symptômes négatifs et cognitifs n'ont pas montré d'amélioration. Il existe peu de preuves que les drogues antipsychotiques améliorent substantiellement les symptômes négatifs et cognitifs, sauf dans les situations où ceux-ci sont secondaires aux symptômes positifs. Comme nous l'avons vu, cela n'est pas surprenant, car ces symptômes résultent très probablement de la perturbation des circuits corticaux plutôt que de la signalisation dopaminergique striatale.
Des traitements psychologiques de la psychose ont également été mis au point. Ces approches peuvent aider les individus à aborder les schémas cognitifs biaisés et à réévaluer les symptômes psychotiques. Cela peut permettre de rompre le cycle (figure 3) dans lequel le stress lié à l'expérience de la psychose est lui-même un facteur d'exacerbation et de perpétuation. L'émotion fortement exprimée, un style de communication caractérisé par des commentaires critiques, de l'hostilité et un engagement émotionnel excessif envers les personnes atteintes de schizophrénie, est associée à des taux accrus de rechute, et les thérapies visant à remédier à une communication familiale inadaptée se sont également révélées efficaces.82 Cependant, les traitements psychologiques semblent également avoir des associations minimales avec les symptômes cognitifs et négatifs.83
submitted by Dowdidik to TroublesMentaux [link] [comments]

2023.05.31 02:17 Arolfe97 Trouble with Goff Orks

Hi Guys,

So i'm struggling against Ork Goffs in particular as my local scene tends to have a few Ork Players. i know 10th is around the corner but this is more to help me think strategically going forward in the future so its more game plan tactics than army list help.

i run Slaanesh Daemons mono and the problem i seem to have is orks being at toughness 5 makes even tackling infantry tough let alone vehicles where Slaanesh tends to struggle to wound. this means even if i charge we tend to trade fight phases meaning unless i wipe im going to take some heavy hits and lose squads of netts or even fiends.

Goff in particular is the struggle as in Waagh im going to be obliterated against buckets of dice and with netts and fiends sitting on 5+ saves against the volume of attacks is punishing

The Beastboss on Squigasaur is also terrifying and point cost wise is i would argue one of the best bang for your buck models in the game points wise. its fast, durable, is devastating in attacks and can be protected with look out sir. This thing deleted be'lakor and my keeper in 2 turns now for 160 points and a CP for a relic is absolutely monstrous

The Waagh 5+ invulv also makes charging risky as again i tend to find i can't wipe out units as effectively as i want without sending 2 units to take one out leaving my 2 units exposed to counters

i have tried playing passive for secondaries but turn 1/2 waagh means hes on my side easily and punishing me with charges. opponents also tend to run the open top transports full of rocket nobs etc so im taking heavy hits against greater daemons or fiends if he manages to get line of site and flank around terrain, the exploding 6s are devastating as well as theres a deceptive amount of hits i take.

do i just death ball up one side and try to clear a side of the board to gain position or is there anything else that can help?

as i mentioned this isn't list building i don't want to buy nurgle, Khorn or Tzeench models at this stage until 10th comes out plus i still really like thematically keeping Slaanesh mono. in terms of units its standard netts, fiend blobs, chariots, KoS, Belakor etc. a typical run of the mill Slaanesh pure list

this is more about thinking tactically how i go against melee counter armies that i have to punch up against

thanks again all
submitted by Arolfe97 to WarhammerCompetitive [link] [comments]